Potensi Agens Hayati dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Pangkal dan Peningkatan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Bawang Merah
Potential of Biological Agents for Controlling Basal Rot Disease and Promoting Plant Growth in Shallot
The use of biocontrol agents has been known as one component in integrated disease management for shallot. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of three biocontrol agents (Bacillus subtilis strains B1 and B298, and nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum T14a) in suppressing the incidence of basal rot disease and promoting the growth of two shallot varieties (‘Bima Brebes’ and ‘Tajuk’) in the field. The experimental research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consisting of two factors, i.e. type of biocontrol agent and shallot’s variety. It was shown that application of biocontrol agents prolongs the incubation period of the disease. All biocontrol agents increase plant resistance and reduce the incidence of basal rot disease. B. subtilis B1 and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum T14a had high efficacy, i.e 81.53% and 58.02%. Based on the observation of disease incidence and the area under the disease progression curve, it is known that var. ‘Tajuk’ is more susceptible to basal rot disease than var. ‘Bima Brebes’. Furthermore, the analysis showed that all biocontrol agents were able to increase the percentage of germination, leaf area index, plant growth rate, total chlorophyll in leaves and productivity. The highest percent increase over control in productivity was obtained by B. subtilis B1 (45.45%) followed by nonpathogenic F. oxysporum T14a (37.88%) and B. subtilis B298 (28.79%). Two of the three biocontrol agents tested, i.e. B. subtilis B1 and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum T14a are potential agents for controlling basal rot disease in shallots because they have good ability to increase plant growth and productivity.
Arnon DI. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24(1):1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1.
Benhamou N, Garand C, Goulet A. 2002. Ability of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 to induce resistance against Pythium ultimum infection in cucumber. J Appl Environ Microbiol. 68(8):4044–4060. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 1128/AEM.68.8.4044-4060.2002.
Bugbee BG. 1996. Growth analysis and yield components. Di dalam: Salisbury FB, editor. Units, Symbols, and Terminology for Plant Physiology: A Reference for Presentation of Research Results in the Plant Sciences. New York (US): Oxford University Press.
Cawoy H, Debois D, Franzil L, De Pauw E, Thonart P, Ongena M. Lipopeptides as main ingredients for inhibition of fungal phytopathogens by Bacillus subtilis/amyloliquefaciens. J Microb Biotechnol. 8(2):28–295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111 /1751-7915.12238.
Córcoles JI, Domínguez A, Moreno MA, Ortega JF, de Juan JA. 2015. A non-destructive method for estimating onion leaf area. IJAFR. 54(1):17–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijafr-2015-0002.
Durairaj K, Velmurugun P, Park JH, Chang WS, Park YJ, Senthilkumar P, Choi KM, Lee JH, Oh BT. 2018. An investigation of biocontrol activity Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains against Panax ginseng root rot fungal phytopathogens. BioControl. 125:138–146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2018.05.021.
Hashem A, Tabassum B, Abd_Allah EF. 2019. Bacillus subtilis: a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that also impact biotic stress. Saudi J Biol Sci. 26(6):1291–1297. DOI:https:///doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs. 2019.05.004.
Hidayat F, Khamidi T, Wiyono S. 2010. Pengetahuan sikap dan tindakan petani di Kabupaten Tegal dalam penggunaan pestisida dan kaitannya dengan tingkat keracunan pestisida. Bumi Lestari J Environ. 10:1–12. https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/blje/article/view/99.
Horinouchi H, Watanabe H, Taguchi Y,
Muslim A, Hyakumachi M. 2011. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato with Fusarium equiseti GF191 in both rockwool and soil systems. BioControl. 56(6):915–923. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-011-9369-3.
Ishimoto H, Fukushi Y, Tahara S. 2004. Non-pathogenic Fusarium strains protect the seedlings of Lepidium sativum from Pythium ultimum. J Soil Biol Biochem. 36(3):409–414. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.soilbio.2003.10.016.
Isniah US, Widodo. 2015. Eksplorasi Fusarium nonpatogen untuk pengendalian penyakit busuk pangkal pada bawang merah. J Fitopatol Indones. 11(1):14–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14692/jfi.11.1.14.
Jagtap JD, Suryawanshi NS. 2015. Potential of biocontrol agents against basal rot of onion caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. Int J Life Sci. Special Issue (A5):65–69.
Kumar A, Prakash A, Johri BN. 2011. Bacillus as PGPR in crop ecosystem. Di dalam: DK Maheshwari, editor. Bacteria in Agrobiology: Crop Ecosystems. Heidelberg (DE): Springer. hlm 37–59.
Latifah A, Kustantinah, Soesanto L. 2011. Pemanfaatan beberapa isolate Trichoderma harzianum sebagai agensia pengendali hayati penyakit layu fusarium pada bawang merah in planta. J Eugenia. 17(2):86–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35791/eug.17.2. 2011.4105.
Li W, Xiong B, Wang S, Deng X, Yin L, Li H.
Regulation effects of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship in potato during the tuber bulking stage. PLoS ONE. 11(1):1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146877.
Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F. 2009. Plant growth
promoting rhizobacteria. Ann Rev Microbiol. 63:541–556. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307. 162918.
Malathi S. 2015. Biological control of onion basal rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae. Asian J Biol Sci. 10(1):21–26.
Panjaitan FJ. 2019. Seleksi komposisi medium pertumbuhan dan bahan pembawa untuk formulasi cendawan agens hayati Fusarium oxysporum non-patogenik P21a. J Fitopatol Indones. 15(2):44–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14692/jfi.15.2.44-52.
Santoso SE, Soesanto L, Haryanto TAD. 2007. Penekanan hayati penyakit moler pada bawang merah dengan Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, dan Pseudomonas fluorescens P60. JHPT Trop.
(1):53–61. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 23960/
Shaner G, Finney RE. 1977. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology. 67:1051–1056. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-67-1051.
Zhao ZM, Xi JT, Xu JF, Ma LT, Zhao J. 2019. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis growth and sporulation by two-stage solid-state fermentation strategy. Processes. 7(10):644.
Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.