Child Development and Nutritional Status of Children Under Five: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Fishermen Community in Terengganu, Malaysia
This study aims to determine child development, nutritional status and the association between child development and nutritional status. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 fishermen’s children under five years old in selected districts in Terengganu. All respondents were assisted by their mothers during the assessment. Child development was evaluated through the Denver II Development Screening Test. Nutritional status was determined via the anthropometry assessment (BMI-for-age and height-for-age). Preponderantly, the prevalence of suspected development delay of children under-five in Terengganu was 31.7%. The prevalence of suspected delay for language, fine motor-adaptive, and personal-social skills were 15.0%, 1.7%, and 16.7%, respectively. BMI-for-age z-score and height for age z-score of these children were -1.62±1.23 and -0.27±1.41, respectively, indicating a normal range; nonetheless, there were still children that were wasted (23.3%), severely wasted (13.3%), stunted (5.0%), severely stunted (1.7%), and at risk of being overweight (1.7%). However, the chi square test showed there was no association found between child development and nutritional status, BMI-for-age and height-for-age (p>0.001), among fishermen’s children under-five in this study. The nutritional status had no effect on the development of these fishermen's children, but may have been influenced by other factors such as stimulating surroundings, parenting abilities, and culture.
Atiah MM, Asma’ A. 2021. Dietary intake, nutritional status and cognitive performance among fishermen’s children: A Review. Malaysian J Public Health Med 21(1):148–159. https://doi.org/10.37268/mjphm/vol.21/no.1/art.1092
Bandoh DA, Manu A, Kenu E. 2018. Lacking in abundance: Undernutrition in a peri-urban fishing community in Coastal Ghana. BMC Nutr 4(1):1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0229-8
Bradley RH, Corwyn RF. 2002. Socio-economic status and child development. Annu Rev Psychol 53(1):371–399. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233
Capanzana MV, Aguila DV, Gironella GMP, Montecillo KV. 2018. Nutritional status of children ages 0–5 and 5–10 years old in households headed by fisherfolks in the Philippines. Archive of Public Health 76(1):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-018-0267-3
Cheah WL, Muda WAMW, Hussin ZAM, Thon CC. 2012. Factors associated with undernutrition among children in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Public Health 24(2):330–342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539510380737
Chua HS, Ali A, Zakari NS, Yusof HM. 2018. Assessment of diet quality and its association with nutritional status among fishermen's children in Terengganu. Malays Appl Biol 47(6):137–144
Duarte MG, Duarte GSD, Nobre GC, Bandeira PFR, Santos JOLDS, Barros JLC. 2017. Motor development and associated factors in children between 36 and 42 months in low Amazon region. J Phys Educ 27. https://doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v27i1.2751
Eapen V, Zoubeidi T, Yunis F, Gururaj AK, Sabri S, Ghubash R. 2006. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of global developmental delay in 3-year-old children in the United Arab Emirates. J Psychosom Res 61(3):321–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.05.012
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2000. The Sate of Food Insecurity in The World 2000. Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division. Italy (IT): FAO.
Grantham-McGregor SM, Fernald LC, Kagawa RM, Walker S. 2014. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1308:11–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12284
Huiracocha-Tutiven L, Orellana-Paucar A, Abril-Ulloa V, Huiracocha-Tutiven M, Palacios-Santana G, Blume S. 2019. Child development and nutritional status in Ecuador. Glob Pediatr Health 6:p.2333794X18821946. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X18821946
Hurley KM, Yousafzai AK, Lopez-Boo F. 2016. Early child development and nutrition: A review of the benefits and challenges of implementing integrated interventions. Adv Nutr 2016 7(2):357–363. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.010363
Jimoh AO, Anyiam JO, Yakubu AM. 2018. Relationship between child development and nutritional status of under-five Nigerian children. South Afr J Clin Nutr 31(3):50–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2017.1387434
Khan S, Zaheer S, Safdar NF. 2019. Determinants of stunting, underweight and wasting among children < 5 years of age: evidence from 2012–2013, Pakistan demographic and health survey. BMC Pub Health 19(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6688-2
Malaysian Open Data Portal. 2019. Bilangan penduduk negeri Terengganu mengikut umur. http://www.data.gov.my/data/ms_MY/dataset/bilangan-penduduk-negeri-terengganu-mengikut-kumpulan-umur-2016 [Accessed 17th November 2019].
Mlauzi M, Mzengereza K. 2017. Contribution of fish consumption to reduction of malnutrition among the children under five in Salima, Malawi. J Anim Res Nutr 2(2):18. https://doi.org/10.21767/2572-5459.100038
Mzumara B, Bwembya P, Halwiindi H, Mugode r, Banda J. 2018. Factors associated with stunting among children below five years of age in Zambia: Evidence from the 2014 Zambia demographic and health survey. BMC Nutr 2018 4(1):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-018-0260-9
[NHMS] National Health and Morbidity Survey. 2016a. National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016: Maternal and Child Health. Volume 1: Methodology and General Findings. Kuala Lumpur (KL): Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.
[NHMS] National Health and Morbidity Survey. 2016b. National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016: Maternal and Child Health. Volume 2: Maternal and Child Health Findings. Kuala Lumpur (KL): Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.
[NHMS] National Health and Morbidity Survey. 2015. National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015: Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors & Other Health Problems, Volume 2. Kuala Lumpur (KL): Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.
Pem D. 2015. Factors affecting early childhood growth and development: Golden 1000 days. Adv Practice Nurs 2015(1):101.
Rao N, Richards B, Sun J, Weber A, Sincovich A. 2019. Early childhood education and child development in four countries in East Asia and the Pacific. Early Child Res Q 2019 47:169–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.08.011
Rubio-Codina M, Attanasio O, Grantham-McGregor S. 2016. Mediating pathways in the socio-economic gradient of child development: Evidence from children 6–42 months in Bogota. Int J Behav Dev 40(6):483–491. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415626515
Sanusi NNNM, Ali A, Kamarudin KS, Yusof HM. 2018. Assessment of food insecurity and food coping strategies among fishermen household during monsoon in Terengganu, Malaysia. Malays Appl Biol 47(6):1–9.
Shong TS, Bakar SHA, Islam MR. 2018. Poverty and delinquency: A qualitative study on selected juvenile offenders in Malaysia. International Social Work 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872818756172
Treanor M. 2012. Impacts of poverty on children and young people. Stirling (UK): Scottish Child Care and Protection Network.
[UNICEF] United Nations Children's Fund. 2018. A study of urban child poverty and deprivation in low-cost flats in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia (KL): UNICEF.
Valla L, Wentzel-Larsen T, Hofoss D, Slinning K. 2015. Prevalence of suspected developmental delays in early infancy: Results from a regional population-based longitudinal study. BMC Pediatr 15:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-015-0528-z
Venetsanou F, Kambas A. 2010. Environmental factors affecting preschoolers’ motor development. Early Child Educ J 37(4):319–327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-009-0350-z
Warsito O, Khomsan A, Hernawati N, Anwar F. 2012. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia. Nutr Res Pract 6(5):451–457. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.451
[WHO] World Health Organization. 1997. Global database on child growth and malnutrition. WHO. https://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/about/introduction/en/index4.html [Accessed 29th November 2019].
[WHO] World Health Organization. 2006. Methods and development. France (FR): WHO Press, World Health Organization.
Wei TS, Ali A. 2018. Breakfast consumption and its relationship with cognitive performance among fishermen’s children in Terengganu. Malays Appl Biol. 47(4):24–34.
Wong HJ, Moy FM, Nair S. 2014. Risk factors of malnutrition among preschool children in Terengganu, Malaysia: A case control study. BMC Pub Health 14(1):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-785
Zhang J, Guo S, Li Y, Wei Q, Zhang C, Wang X, Luo S, Zhao C, Scherpbier R W. 2018. Factors influencing developmental delay among young children in poor rural China: A latent variable approach. BMJ Open 8(8): p.e021628. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021628