UPWELLING CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SOUTHERN JAVA WATERS DURING STRONG LA NINA 2010 AND SUPER EL NINO 2015
Seasonal coastal upwelling in the Southern Java waters is considered to be modulated by interannual ocean-atmosphere variability of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study aims to investigate a contrast in seasonal upwelling characteristics during the La Nina 2010 and El Nino 2015 events, by using multi-datasets from INDESO model output and satellite-derived datasets. Distinct characteristics of seasonal upwelling was clearly seen. In La Nina, surface ocean-atmosphere variables were much lower than that observed in El Nino, except for precipitation rate, sea surface temperature, and sea surface height. In La Nina, warmer (27-28°C) and a very freshwater (<33.80psu) were predominant in the upper 45m depth, concealing upwelling cooler water at subsurface. In contrast, in the El Nino, a drastic upwelled subsurface water of isotherms of 25-26°C and isohalines of 34.24-34.44psu were outcropped at the sea surface. Temperature-based upwelling index is -2°C and +4°C, demonstrating the ENSO has strongly modulated the upwelling intensity. A strong eastward South Java Coastal Current (SJCC) was found only in La Nina event. Persistent westward Indonesian Throughflow south of 9.5°S were visible both in different ENSO events. Estimate of Ekman transport derived from model meridional current was intervened strongly by the presence of the SJCC and the ITF.
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