• Mudian Paena Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya AIr Payau dan Penyuluhan Perikanan, (BRPBAPPP) Maros
  • Rajuddin Syamsuddin Fakultas Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Chair Rani Fakultas Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan Universitas Hasanuddin
  • Haryati Tandipayuk Fakultas Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan Universitas Hasanuddin
Keywords: estimation of organic waste, shrimp farming, super-intensive technology


Environmental pollution in the form of organic waste containing nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) sourced from superintensive shrimp pond cultivation due to much feed use is a severe problem in the development of superintensive technology in Indonesia.  This study aims (1) to estimate the amount of feed wasted into the environment during cultivation in superintensive ponds and (2) estimate the amount of N and P waste that is wasted into the environment from superintensive cultivation. The research method is carried out in 3 stages; the first stage was carried out on a superintensive pond for 76 days by carrying out superintensive shrimp farming with a density of 600 tails / m2 then carried out observations of wasted feed. The second stage is to conduct laboratory-scale shrimp digestibility tests, and the third stage is laboratory-scale shrimp excretion research. The results showed that (1) the amount of feed wasted into the environment (un-eaten) amounted to 24.32% of the total feed provided. The burden of organic waste from superintensive ponds shrimp discharged into the waters of Labuange Bay is 3.89 tons/year consisting of organic waste containing N amounting to 3.61 tons/year with a mean of discharging to waters of 10.31 kg/day, and organic waste containing P of 0.28 tons/year with a mean discharge to the waters of 0.81 kg/day. These results indicate that the waters of Labuange Bay have experienced the pressure of organic waste originating from superintensive shrimp pond activities.


Download data is not yet available.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. Official Methods of Analysis: Changes in Official Methods of Analysis Made at the Annual Meeting. Supplement (Vol. 15). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA. 771 p.

Barg, U.C. 1992. Guidelines of the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 328. FAO. Rome. 122 p.

Boyd, C. & J. Clay. 2002. Evaluation of Belize Aquaculture Ltd: A superintensive shrimp aquaculture system. FAO. USA. 25 p.

Boyd, C.E. & C.S. Tucker. 2012. Pond aquaculture water quality management. Springer Science & Business Media, LLC. USA. 699 p.

Comoglio, L.I., G. Gaxiola, A. Roque, G. Cuzon, & O. Amin. 2004. The effect of starvation on refeeding, digestive enzyme activity, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. J. of Shellfish Research, 23(1): 243-249.

De Carvalho, C.V., A. Bianchini, M.B. Tesser, & L.A. Sampaio. 2010. The effect of protein levels on growth, postprandial excretion and tryptic activity of juvenile mullet Mugil platanus (Günther). Aquaculture research, 41(4): 511-518.

Furuichi, M. 1988. Dietary requirement. In: Watanabe, T (Ed.), Fish Nutrition and Mariculture. JICA Kanagawa International Fisheries Training Centre. Tokyo. 78 p.

González, F.U.T., J.A. Herrera-Silveira, & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo. 2008. Water quality variability and eutrophic trends in karstic tropical coastal lagoons of the Yucatán Peninsula. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 76(2): 418-430.

Kawasaki, N., M.R.M. Kushairi, N. Nagao, F. Yusoff, A. Imai, & A. Kohzu. 2016. Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Aquaculture Farms to Selangor River, Malaysia. International J. of Environmental Science and Development, 7(2): 113-116.

Paerl, H.W. 1997. Coastal eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: Importance of atmospheric deposition and groundwater as “new” nitrogen and other nutrient sources. Limnology and oceanography, 42(5part2): 1154-1165.

Ponce-Palafox, J.T., H. Esparza-Leal, J.L. Arredondo-Figueroa, C.A. Martinez-Palacios, & L.G. Ross. 2017. The effect of protein and lipid level on the specific dynamic action and post-prandial nitrogen excretion in subadult of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 52(1): 131-141.

Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, & W.J. Wiseman Jr. 2002. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia, aka “The dead zone”. Annual Review of ecology and Systematics, 33(1): 235-263.

Rurangwa, E., U. Baumgartner, H.M. Nguyen, & J.W.V.D Vis. 2016. Aquaculture Innovation in Vietnam. Wageningen University and Research. 28 p.

Schwitzguébel, J.P. & H. Wang. 2007. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 14(7): 452-462.

Silva, K.R., W. Wasielesky, & P.C. Abreu. 2013. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the biofloc production of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. J. of the World Aquaculture Society, 44(1): 30-41.

Suwoyo, H.S., S. Tahe, & M. Fahrur. 2015. Karakteristik limbah sedimen tambak udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) super intensif dengan kepadatan berbeda. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Teknologi Akuakultur, 901-913 pp.

Suwoyo, H.S., M. Fahrur, M. Makmur, & R. Syah. 2017. Pemanfaatan limbah tambak udang super intensif sebagai pupuk organik untuk pertumbuhan biomassa kelekap dan nener bandeng. Media Akuakultur, 11(2): 97-110.

Tacon, A.G.J., J.J. Cody, L.D. Conquest, S. Divakaran, I.P. Forster, & O.E. Decamp. 2002. Effect of culture system on the nutrition and growth performance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) fed different diets. Aquaculture nutrition, 8(2): 121-137.

Thakur, D.P. & C.K. Lin. 2003. Water quality and nutrient budget in closed shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture systems. Aquacultural Engineering, 27: 159-176.

Teichert-Coddington, D.R., D. Martinez, & E. Ramırez. 2000. Partial nutrient budgets for semi-intensive shrimp farms in Honduras. Aquaculture, 190(1): 139-154.

Tirkaso, W. & I.M. Gren. 2016. Habitat quality and fish population: impacts of nutrient enrichment on populations of European perch off the east coast of Sweden, 3:1-21 pp.

Wasielesky, W., H. Atwood, A. Stokes, & C.L. Browdy. 2006. Effect of natural production in a zero exchange suspended microbial floc based super-intensive culture system for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 258(1): 396-403.

Watanabe, T. 1988. Fish Nutrition and Mariculture. JICA Textbook the General Aquaculture Courese. Departement of Aquatic Biosciences, Tokyo University of Fisheries. Japan. 233 p.

Williamson, S.C., J.E. Rheuban, J.E. Costa, D.M. Glover, & S.C. Doney. 2017. Assessing the impact of local and regional influences on nitrogen loads to Buzzards Bay, MA. Front. Mar. Sci., 3: 1-17.