SENYAWA FENOLIK, ORYZANOL, DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BEKATUL YANG DIFERMENTASI DENGAN Rhizopus oryzae

  • Faizah Faizah Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
  • Feri Kusnandar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
  • Siti Nurjanah Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor
Keywords: antioxidant activity, fungi fermentation, rice bran, total phenolic compound, -oryzanol

Abstract

Rice bran is a by-product of milled rice. It contains bioactive compounds, such as total phenolic compounds and g-oryzanol known to have antioxidant activities. However, these bioactive compounds are chemically bound in the lignin matrix of the rice bran. Fermentation process potentially releases the bound forms of the active compounds to become the free ones. In this research, the rice brans of three varieties, i.e. Inpari 24 (red rice), inpari 30 (white rice), and koshihikari (white rice), were fermented using Rhizopus oryzae for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Those showed highest antioxidant activities by DPPH assays were selected for further chemical composition analyses (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrate), total phenolic compound, and g-oryzanol. The fermentation process significantly increased (P<0.05) the antioxidant activities of all rice brans and those fermented for 72 hours showed the highest antioxidant activities. This fermentation condition resulted in significant increase in moisture, ash and protein contents, while decreasing the fat and carbohydrate contents. The total phenolic compound and g-oryzanol of the three fermented rice brans increased significantly (P<0.05). The fermented rice bran of Inpari 24 variety showed the highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic compound, and g-oryzanol contents as compared to those of Inpari 30 and Koshihikari varieties.

References

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 2012. Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry 19th Edition. AOAC Inc, Gaithersburg (US).

Arab F, Alemzadeh I, Maghsoudi V. 2011. Determi-nation of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract. Sci Iran Transactions C: Chem Chem Eng 18: 1402-1406. DOI: 10.1016/ j.scient.2011.09.014.

Baba SA, Malik SA. 2015. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii. J Taibah University Sci 9: 449-454 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtusci.2014.11.001.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Luas panen dan produksi padi di Indonesia. http://www.bps.go. id. [02 Januari 2019].

Esa NM, Ling TB, Peng LS. 2013. By-product of rice processing: An overview of health benefits and application. J Rice Res 1: 107-117. DOI: 10.417 2/jrr.1000107.

Forster GM, Raina K, Kumar A, Kumar S, Agarwal R, Chen MH, Bauer JE, McClung AM,

Ryan EP. 2013. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth. Food Chem 141: 1545-1552. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.020.

Gul K, Yousuf B, Singh AK, Singh P, Wani AA. 2015. Rice bran: Nutritional values and its emerging potential for development of functio-nal food - a review. Bioactive Carbohyd Dietary Fibre 6: 24-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcdf.2015.06. 002.

Hartati S, Marsono Y, Suparmo, Santoso U. 2015. Komposisi kimia serta aktivitas antioksidan eks-trak hidrofilik bekatul beberapa varietas padi. J Agritech 35: 35-42. DOI: 10.22146/agritech. 9417.

Henderson AJ, Ollila CA, Kumar A, Borresen EC, Raina K, Agarwal R, Ryan EP. 2012. Chemo-preventive properties of dietary rice bran: current status and future prospects. Adv Nutr 3: 643-653. DOI: 10.3945/an.112.002303.

Islam MS, Nagasaka R, Ohara K, Hosoya T, Ozaki H, Ushio H, Hori M. 2011. Biological abilities of rice bran derived antioxidant phytochemicals for medical therapy - a review. Curr Top Med Chem 11: 1847-1853. DOI: 10.2174/15680261 1796235099.

Jayadeep A, Malleshi NG. 2011. Nutrients, composi-tion of tocotrienols, tocopherols, and γ-oryza-nol, and antioxidant activity in brown rice before and after biotransformation. CyTA-J Food 9: 82-87. DOI: 10.1080/19476331003686866.

Jun HI, Shin JW, Yang GS, Kim YS. 2015. Isolation and identification of phenolic antioxidants in black rice bran. J Food Sci 80: 262-268. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12754.

Krishna AGG, Hemakumar KH, Khaton S. 2006. Study on the composition of rice bran oil and its higher free fatty acids value. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83: 117-120. DOI: 10.1007/s11746-006-1183-1.

Laokuldilok T, Shoemaker CF, Jongkaewwattana S. 2011. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans. J Agric Food Chem 59: 193-199. DOI: 10.1021/jf103649q.

Martins S, Mussatto SI, Martinez AG, Montanez SJ, Aguilar CN, Teixeira JA. 2011. Bioactive pheno-lic compounds: Production and extraction by solid-state fermentation - a review. Biotech Adv 29: 365-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011. 01.008.

Moko EM, Purnomo H, Kusnadi J, Ijong FG. 2014. Phytochemical content and antioxidant proper-ties of colored and non-colored varieties of rice bran from Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indone-sia. Int Food Res J 21: 1053-1059.

Moongngarm A, Daomukda N, Khumpika S. 2012. Chemical compositions, phytochemicals, and antioxidant capacity of rice bran, rice bran layer, and rice germ. Asia-Pac Chem, Biol Environ Eng (APCBEE) Proc 2: 73-79. DOI: 10.1016/j. apcbee.2012.06.014.

Mumpuni PD, Ayustaningwarno F. 2013. Analisis kadar tokoferol, γ-oryzanol dan β-karoten serta aktivitas antioksidan minyak bekatul kasar. J Nutr College 2: 350-357. DOI: 10.14710/jnc. v2i3.3436.

Muntana N, Prasong S. 2010. Study on total pheno-lic contents and their antioxidant activities of Thai white, red, and black rice bran extracts. Pakistan J Biol Sci 13: 170-174. DOI: 10.3923/ pjbs.2010.170.174.

Oliveira MS, Fedden V, Kupski L, Cipolatti EP, Furlong EB, Soares LS. 2010. Physico-chemi-cal characterization of fermented rice bran bio-mass. CyTA-J Food 8: 229-236. DOI: 10.1080/ 19476330903450274.

Patel M, Naik SN. 2004. Gamma-oryzanol from rice bran oil - a review. J Sci Ind Res 63: 569-578.

Rashid NYA, Razak DLA, Jamaluddin A, Sharifuddin SA, Long K. 2015. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of rice bran fermented with lactic acid bacteria.

Malaysian J Microbiol 11: 156-162. DOI: 10.21161/mjm.12714.

Razak DLA, Rashid NYAR, Jamaluddin A, Shari-fudin SA, Long K. 2015. Enhancement of phe-nolic acid content and antioxidant activity of rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus and Monascus purpureus. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 4: 33-38. DOI 10.1016/j.bcab.2014.11.003.

Reksohadiwinoto BS, Rosmalawati S, Cahyana PT, dan Hariyanto B. 2017. Enzim laccase dari edible mushroom untuk pemutihan pati sagu ramah lingkungan. J Teknol Lingkungan 18: 224-332. DOI: 10.29122/jtl.v18i2.1790.

Ryan EP, Heuberger AL, Weir TL, Barnett B, Broec-kling CD, Prenni JE. 2011. Rice bran fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii generates novel metabolite profile with bioactivity. J Agric Food Chem 59: 1862-1870. DOI: 10.1021/jf1038103.

Schmidt CG, Furlong EB. 2012. Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae. Bioresource Technology 123: 36-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.07.081.

Schmidt CG, Goncalves LM, Prietto L, Hackbart HS, Furlong EB. 2014. Antioxidant activity and en-zyme inhibition of phenolic acids from fer-mented rice bran with fungus Rizhopus oryzae. Food Chem 124: 132-140. DOI: 10.1016/j.food chem.2013.09.101.

Sigit AM. 2008. Pola aktivitas enzim lignolitik jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) [Skripsi]. Bogor: Fakultas Matematika dan Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Sompong R, Siebenhandl ES, Linsberger MG, Berghofer E. 2011. Physicochemical and anti-oxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem 124: 132-140. DOI: 10.1016/j.food chem.2010.05.115.

Sukma LN, Zackiyah, Gumilar GG. 2010. Pengkaya-an asam lemak tak jenuh pada bekatul dengan cara fermentasi padat menggunakan Asper-gillus terreus. J Sains Teknol Kimia 1: 66-72.

Tuarita MZ. 2017. Identifikasi Senyawa Sitotoksik dan Antioksidan dari Berbagai Jenis Bekatul dengan Pendekatan Metabolomik [Tesis]. Bogor: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Zhang MW, Zhang RF, Zhang FX, Liu RH. 2010. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially avail-able varieties. J Agric Food Chem 58: 7580-7587. DOI: 10.1021/jf1007665.

Published
2020-06-26
How to Cite
Faizah, F., Kusnandar, F., & Nurjanah, S. (2020). SENYAWA FENOLIK, ORYZANOL, DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BEKATUL YANG DIFERMENTASI DENGAN Rhizopus oryzae. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan, 31(1), 86-94. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2020.31.1.86