The Use of Forest Refugia by Ungulate After the 2015'Fire in Tesso Nilo National Park, Riau-Indonesia
Wildfires in Indonesia 2015 burnt forests in many protected areas, including remaining forests in Tesso Nilo National Park. We investigated the extent to which 2015's wildfires affect the remaining habitat and the spatial distribution of ungulates in the park by using satellite images to identify burnt and unburnt forest patches. Habitat conditions and the presence of ungulates indicated by the number of ungulate signs were compared between burnt and unburnt areas. The fire devastated trees at different rates depending on tree life form stages. We found that younger trees were more vulnerable to fire. The abundance of ungulates did not differ significantly between burnt and unburnt areas, but all vegetation characteristics were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U-test p-value < 0.05). We surmise that food such as new shoots or leaves, particularly at the edge of burnt areas, attracted ungulates out of unburnt areas. The remaining forest is relatively small, and the park is under continued pressure from illegal conversion, so any further loss of remaining forest as refugia will likely harm the ungulate population. We recommend that management should prioritize the preservation of remaining pristine habitat and the reduction of fire suppression, especially during the dry season.
Ariyanto, T., Dinata, Y., Dwiyanto, Turyanto, E., Sugito, W., Kirklin, S., & Amin, R. (2021). Status of sumatran tiger in the Berbak-Sembilang landscape (2020). Journal of Threatened Taxa, 13(6), 18419–18426. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.62188.8.131.5219-18426
Beest, F. M. V., Moorter, B. V., & Milner, J. M. (2012). Temperature-mediated habitat use and selection by a heat-sensitive northern ungulate temperature-mediated habitat use and selection by a heat-sensitive northern ungulate. Animal Behaviour, 84(3), 723–735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.06.032
Berry, L. E., Driscoll, D. A., Stein, J. A., Blanchard, W., Banks, S. C., Bradstock, R. A., & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2015). Identifying the location of fire refuges in wet forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 25(8), 150409201937008. https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1699.1
Bowles, M., Apfelbaum, S., Haney, A., Lehnhardt, S., & Post, T. (2011). Canopy cover and groundlayer vegetation dynamics in a fire managed eastern sand savanna. Forest Ecology and Management, 262(11), 1972–1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.08.036
Crotteau, J. S., Varner, J. M., & Ritchie, M. W. (2013). Post-fire regeneration across a fire severity gradient in the southern Cascades. Forest Ecology and Management, 287, 103–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.022
Field, R. D., Spessa, A. C., Aziz, N. A., Camia, A., Cantin, A., Carr, R., …, & Wang, X. (2015). Development of a Global Fire Weather Database. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 15(6), 1407–1423. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1407-2015
Forsyth, D. M., Gormley, A. M., Woodford, L., & Fitzgerald, T. (2012). Effects of large-scale high-severity fire on occupancy and abundances of an invasive large mammal in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research, 39(7), 555–564. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR12033
Hayasaka, H., Noguchi, I., Putra, E. I., Yulianti, N., & Vadrevu, K. (2014). Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Environmental Pollution, 195(0), 257–266. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.031
Hayasaka, H., Takahashi, H., Limin, S. H., Yulianti, N., & Usup, A. (2016). Peat fire occurence. In Tropical peatland ecosystems (pp. 377–395). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55681-7
He, T., Lamont, B. B., & Pausas, J. G. (2019). Fire as a key driver of earth’s biodiversity. Biological Review, 19832010. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12544
Imron, M. A., Herzog, S., & Berger, U. (2011). The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: An individual-based model approach. Environmental Management, 48(2), 276–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9577-0
Kayat, Pudyatmoko, S., Maksum, M., & Imron, M. A. (2017). Potensi konflik penggembalaan kuda pada habitat rusa jawa (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822) di kawasan Tanjung Torong Padang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 1(2), 22–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13051
Keuling, O., Stier, N., & Roth, M. (2008). How does hunting influence activity and spatial usage in wild boar Sus scrofa L.? European Journal of Wildlife Research, 54(4), 729–737. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-008-0204-9
Krisnawati, H., Kaliio, M., & Kanninen, M. (2011). Acacia mangium Willd.: Ecology, silviculture and productivity. Bogor: CIFOR.
Leahy, L., Legge, S. M., Tuft, K., McGregor, H. W., Barmuta, L. A., Jones, M. E., & Johnson, C. N. (2015). Amplified predation after fire suppresses rodent populations in Australia’s tropical savannas. Wildlife Research, 42(8), 705–716. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR15011
Li, X., Buzzard, P., & Jiang, X. (2014). Habitat associations of four ungulates in mountain forests of southwest China, based on camera trapping and dung counts data. Population Ecology, 56(1), 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10144-013-0405-2
Linkie, M., & Ridout, M. S. (2011). Assessing tiger-prey interactions in sumatran rainforests. Journal of Zoology, 284(3), 224–229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00801.x
Luskin, M. S., Albert, W. R., & Tobler, M. W. (2017). Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks. Nature Communications, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01656-4
Marschall, J. M., Guyette, R. P., Stambaugh, M. C., & Stevenson, A. P. (2014). Fire damage effects on red oak timber product value. Forest Ecology and Management, 320, 182–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.03.006
Massei, G., & Genov, P. V. (2004). The environmental impact of wild boar. Galemys, 135(especial), 135–145. Retrieved from https://bepls.com/nov_2015/7BEPLS (1).pdf
Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., & Nasi, R. (2006). Hutan pasca pemanenan. Bogor: CIFOR.
Mitchell, A. (2005). The ESRI guide to GIS analysis (Volume 2). ESRI Press.
Morrison, M. L., Block, W. M., Strickland, M. D., Collier, B. A., & Peterson, M. J. (2008). Wildlife study design. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-75528-1
Mossbrucker, A. M., Fleming, C. H., Imron, M. A., Pudyatmoko, S., & Sumardi. (2016). AKDEc home range size and habitat selection of sumatran elephants. Wildlife Research, 43(7). https://doi.org/10.1071/WR16069
Nurvianto, S., Imron, M. A., & Herzog, S. (2015). Activity patterns and behaviour of denning dholes (Cuonalpinus) in a dry deciduous forest of East Java, Indonesia. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology, and Life Science, 4(November), 45–54. Retrieved from https://bepls.com/nov_2015/7BEPLS (1).pdf
Page, S., Rieley, J., Hoscilo, A., Spessa, A., & Weber, U. (2013). Current fire regimes, impacts and the likely changes–IV: Tropical Southeast Asia. In J. G. Goldberg (Ed.), Vegetation fires and global change–challenges for concerted international action a white paper directed to the united nations and international organizations (pp. 89–99). Kessel. http://oro.open.ac.uk/39954/1/Global-Vegetation-Fire-White-Paper-2013-Chapter-07-Page-89-99.pdf
Pausas, J. G., & Parr, C. L. (2018). Towards an understanding of the evolutionary role of fire in animals. Evolutionary Ecology, 32(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-018-9927-6
Peterson, D. W., & Dodson, E. K. (2016). Post-fire logging produces minimal persistent impacts on understory vegetation in northeastern Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 370, 56–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.04.004
Poor, E. E., Frimpong, E., Imron, M. A., & Kelly, M. J. (2019). Protected area effectiveness in a sea of palm oil: A Sumatran case study. Biological Conservation, 234, 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.018
Poor, E., Imron, M. A., & Kelly, M. J. (2019). The road to deforestation: Edge effects in an endemic ecosystem in Sumatra, Indonesia. PLoS ONE, 14(7), e0217540. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217540
Risdianto, D., Martyr, D. J., Nugraha, R. T., Harihar, A., Wibisono, H. T., Haidir, I. A., …, & Linkie, M. (2016). Examining the shifting patterns of poaching from a long-term law enforcement intervention in Sumatra. Biological Conservation, 204, 306–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.10.029
Slik, J. W. F., Bernard, C. S., Beek, M. Van, Van Beek, M., Breman, F. C., & Eichhorn, K. A. O. (2008). Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a bornean rain forest. Oecologia, 158(3), 579–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1163-2
Smith, D. S., Fettig, S. M., & Bowker, M. A. (2016). Elevated rocky mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment. Forest Ecology and Management, 362, 46–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.020
Sollmann, R., White, A. M., Gardner, B., & Manley, P. N. (2015). Investigating the effects of forest structure on the small mammal community in frequent-fire coniferous forests using capture-recapture models for stratified populations. Mammalian Biology, 80(4), 247–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2015.03.002
Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., Seuaturien, N., Chirngsaard, E., & Khaengkhetkarn, M. (2010). Population recovery patterns of Southeast Asian ungulates after poaching. Biological Conservation, 143(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.08.023
Sze, J. S., Jefferson, & Lee, J. S. H. (2019). Evaluating the social and environmental factors behind the 2015 extreme fire event in Sumatra, Indonesia. Environmental Research Letters, 14(1), 015001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaee1d
van Mantgem, E. F., Keeley, J. E., & Witter, M. (2015). Faunal responses to fire in chaparral and sage scrub in California, USA. Fire Ecology, 11(3), 128–148. https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.1103128
Widodo, F. A., Hanny, S., Utomo, E. H. S., Zulfahmi, Kusdianto, Septayuda, E., …, & Sunarto. (2017). Tigers and their prey in Bukit Rimbang Baling: Abundance baseline for effective wildlife reserve management. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 11(118–129). Retrieved from https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jikfkt/article/view/28275/17239
Widyastuti, K., Imron, M. A., Pradopo, S. T., Suryatmojo, H., Sopha, B. M., Spessa, A., & Berger, U. (2021). PeatFire: An agent-based model to simulate fire ignition and spreading in a tropical peatland ecosystem. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 30(2), 71–89. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF19213
Yassir, I., Kamp, J. Van Der, & Buurman, P. (2010). Secondary succession after fire in Imperata grasslands of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 137(1–2), 172–182. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.02.001
Yulianti, N., Hayasaka, H., & Usup, A. (2012). Recent forest and peat fire trends in Indonesia. The latest decade by MODIS hotspot data. Global Environmental Research, 16(1), 105–116.
Zecherle, L. J., Bar-david, S., Nichols, H. J., Templeton, A. R., Hipperson, H., Horsburgh, J., & Brown, R. P. (2020). Landscape resistance affects individual habitat selection but not genetic relatedness in a reintroduced desert ungulate. Biological Conservation, 252, 108845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108845
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.