Ecosystem Restoration Policy in Production Forest and Its Implementation in Indonesia
The issuance of the Ministry of Forestry Regulation (Number SK 159/Menhut-II/2004) on Ecosystem Restoration in Production Forest marked a paradigm shift in production forest management in Indonesia from timber to ecosystem-based. By 2019, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) has issued 16 ecosystem restoration concessions (ERC) in production forest totaling 622,826 ha, or only 21% out of the 3 million ha of MoEF's target. Although this policy was considered a breakthrough and it garnered significant attention, currently, there is no comprehensive assessment on the development of ERC policy and its impacts on achieving MoEF's target. Applied a combination of policy content, process, and implementation analysis, and rational policy analysis, this research examined the gaps in ER policy and implementation and identified policy space to pursue necessary policy improvement. The findings suggested that existing policy remains inadequate to support the implementation of ERC from the licensing process to performance evaluation. This study has identified the need to revise the applicability of regulations to facilitate the objectives of ERC as a management unit, and the objective of ecosystem restoration in the production forest. Revisions include ecological, social, and economic aspects using available policy space that supported by the coalition of actors within the Ecosystem Restoration Working Group.
Arts, B. (2012). Forests policy analysis and theory use: overview and trends. Journal of Forest Policy and Economic, 16, 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2010.12.003
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2016). Publikasi statistik perusahaan hak pengusahaan hutan. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/linkTableDinamis/view/id/1115
Brancalion, P. H. S., Meli, P., Tymus, J. R. C., Lenti, F. E. B., Benini, R. M., Silva, A. P. M., ..., & Holl, K. D. (2019). What makes ecosystem restoration expensive? A systematic cost assessment of projects in Brazil. Biological Conservation, 240, 108274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108274
Brockhaus, M., Obidzinski, K., Dermawan, A., Laumonier, Y., & Luttrell, C. (2012). An overview of forest and land allocation policies in Indonesia: Is the current framework sufficient to meet the needs of REDD+? Forest Policy and Economics, 18, 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2011.09.004
Buergin, R. (2016). Ecosystem restoration concession in Indonesia: Conflict and discourses. Critical Asian studies, 48(2), 278–301. https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2016.1164017
Center of Forestry Planning and Statistic. (2009). Indonesia forestry outlook study. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/am608e/am608e00.pdf
Covington, W. W., Niering, W. A,. Starkey, E., & Walker, J. (1999). Ecosystem restoration and management: Scientifict principles and concept. In Ecological Stewardship: A common Reference for Ecosystem Management Reference (pp. 599–617). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/misc/misc_covington.pdf
[CBD] Convention on Biological Diversity. (2016). Ecosystem restoration: Short-term action plan. CBD/COP/DEC/XIII/5. Retrived from https://www.cbd.int/doc/decisions/cop-13/cop-13-dec-05-en.pdf
Davie, J., & Ridwansyah, M. (2016). The Hutan Harapan lesson learnt review: Final report. Jakarta: DANIDA.
Directorate General of Sustainable Production Forest Management. (2017). Data release Ditjen PHPL. Jakarta: Directorate General of Sustainable Production Forest Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Retrieved from http://phpl.menlhk.go.id
Dunn, W. N. (2013). Public policy analysis: An introduction (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.
Gann, G. D., McDonald, T., Walder, B., Aronson, J., Nelson, C. R., Jonson, J., …, & Dixon, K. W. (2019). International principles and standards for the practice of ecological restoration (2nd ed.). Washington: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. Retrieved from https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.ser.org/resource/resmgr/docs/ser_international_standards_.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13035
Gaveau, D. L. A., Kshatriya, M., Sheil, D., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Wijaya, A., …, & Meijaard, E. (2013). Reconciling forest conservation and logging in Indonesian Borneo. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e69887. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0069887
Hall, D. M., & Steiner, R. (2020). Policy content analysis: Qualitative method for analyzing sub-national insect pollinator legislation. MethodsX, 7, 100787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100787
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732305276687
Howland, D., Becker, M. L. & Prelli, L. J. (2006). Merging content analysis and the policy sciences: A system to discern policy-specific trends from news media reports. Policy Sciences, 39, 205–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-006-9016-5
[IDS] Institute of Development Studies. (2006). Understanding policy process: A review of IDS research on the environment. Brighton: University of Sussex.
Kartodihardjo, H. (2008). Discourses and actors in the forest policy formulation: Problems of rational framework. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 14(1), 19–27.
Kartodihardjo, H., Nagara, G., & Situmorang, A. W. (2015). Transaction cost of forest utilization licenses: Institutional issues. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 21(3), 184−191. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.21.3.184
Kartodihardjo, H., (2017). Dibalik krisis ekosistem: Pemikiran tentang kehutanan dan lingkungan hidup. Jakarta: LP3ES (Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan, dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial).
Kern, F., & Rogge, K. S. (2018). Harnessing theories of the policy process for analysing the politics of sustainability transitions: A critical survey. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition, 27, 102–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2017.11.001
Margono, B. A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A., …, & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series datasets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letter, 7, 034010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034010
[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2004). Minister of Forestry Regulation Number SK.159/Menhut-II/2004 concerning the Ecosystem Restoration on the Production Forest. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry.
[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2010). Minister of Forestry Regulation Number P.08/Menhut-II/2010 concerning the Strategic Plan of Ministry of Forestry Period 2010–2014. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry.
[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2008). Minister of Forestry Regulation Number P.61/Menhut-II/2008 concerning Provision and Procedures for the Granting of Timber Utilization Business Permit for Ecosystem Restoration in the Natural Production Forest through Application. Jakarta. Ministry of Forestry
[MoF] Ministry of Forestry. (2014). Minister of Forestry Regulation Number P.64/Menhut-II/2014 concerning the Application of Silviculture in the Areal of Timber Utilization Permit for Ecosystem Restoration in the Production Forest. Jakarta. Ministry of Foresty.
[MoEF] Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2015). Minister of Environment and Forestry Regulation Number 39/Menlhk-Setjen/2015 on the Strategic Plan of Ministry of Environment and Forestry Period 2015–2019. Jakarta: Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
[MoEF] Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2017). Statistic of environment and forestry 2017. Jakarta: Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
[MoEF] Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2018). Roadmap of management of ecosystem restoration in production forest. Jakarta: Directorate of Environmental Services and Non-Timber Forest Production Business in the Production Forest, Directorate General of Sustainable Production Forest Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
Myers-Madeira, E., Sills, E., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., & Kanninen, L. (2010). What is a REDD+ pilot? A preliminary typology based on early actions in Indonesia. CIFOR Infobrief No 26. Bogor: CIFOR.
Nadefier, M., Goli, H., & Ghaljaie, F. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education Journal, 14(3), e67670. https://doi.org/10.5812/sdme.67670
Purba, C. P., Nanggara, S. G., Ratriyono, M., Apriani, I., Rosalina, L., Sari, NA., & Meridian, A. H. (2014). The state of Indonesia forest period 2009-2013. Bogor: Forest Watch Indonesia.
Rahmawati, A. (2013). An economic analysis of ecosystem restoration concession policy in Indonesia: A new strategy for sustainable forest management? International Journal of Green Economics, 7(1), 56–57.
Roe, E. M. (1991). Development narratives, or making the best of blueprint development. World Development, 19(4), 287–300.
Silalahi, M., & Erwin, D. (2015). Collaborative conflict management on ecosystem restoration concession: Lessons learnt from Harapan Rainforest Jambi-South Sumatra-Indonesia. Forest Research, 4, 134. https://doi.org/10.4172/21689776.1000134
Silalahi, M., & Utomo, A. B. (2014). Ecosystem restoration concession (ERC) development in Indonesia. Presented at A Capacity Building Workshop for South East Asia on Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration to Support Achievement of Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Burung Indonesia, Jambi, April 28–May 2.
Sitompul, A., Linkie, M., Gunaryadi, D., Purastuti, E., & Budiman, A. (2011). Ecosystem restoration concession: A new strategy for conserving elephant habitat in Sumatra? Gajah, 34, 26–31.
Sutton, R. (1999). The policy process: An overview. London: Chameleon Press Ltd.
Susanti, A., & Maryudi, A. (2016). Development narratives, notion of forest crisis, and book of oil palm plantation in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 73, 130–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2016.09.009
Tsujino, R., Yumoto, T., Kitamura, S., Djamaluddin I., & Darnaedi, D. (2016). History of forest loss and degradation in Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 57, 335–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.05.034
Widianingsih, N. N., David, W., Pouliout, M., & Theilade, I. (2019). Land use, income, and ethnic diversity in the margins of Hutan Harapan – A rainforest restoration concession in Jambi and South Sumatra, Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 86, 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.05.006
World Bank. (2006). Sustaining Indonesia's forest. Jakarta: World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Publication/280016-1152870963030/IDForestStrategy.pdf?resourceurlname=IDForestStrategy.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.