Three Generations of Forest Peoples’ Empowerment in Indonesia: Process Towards Sustainable and Equitable Forest Management
Human activities that alter land cover have destroyed natural ecosystems and caused conflict. In Indonesia, community-based forest management (CBFM) policies implemented by the government seek to empower communities, ameliorate forest conversion, and reduce environmental conflict. This article critically assesses contemporary CBFM policy in Indonesia by analyzing its history and outcomes through policy analysis. To systematically review previous literature on CBFM, this research uses the PRISMA method. It finds that communities are often able to manage forest areas sustainably through sociocultural systems that combine management customs and culture. Empowerment through CBFM policy therefore promises to promote community subsistence, equity, and security regarding forest management. However, granting total resource rights to communities can result in land conversion unless managerial safeguards are in place. Many studies find that the clarity of land boundaries, the consistency of regulation, and the partiality of land governance drive CBFM program success. To facilitate land governance for the successful implementation of Indonesian social forestry, communities need access rights, authority to manage forests, and sufficient knowledge transfer to participate in formal forest management. In contrast to previous iterations of CBFM in Indonesia, current social forestry policy acknowledges these governance needs and seeks to implement them.
Akiefnawati, R., Villamor, G. B., Zulfikar, F., Budisetiawan, I., Mulyoutami, E., Ayat, A., & van Noordwijk, M. (2010). Stewardship agreement to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): Case study from Lubuk Beringin’s Hutan Desa, Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. International Forestry Review, 12(4), 349–360. https://doi.org/10.1505/ifor.12.4.349
Armitage, D. R. (2003). Traditional agroecological knowledge, adaptive management and the socio-politics of conservation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Environmental Conservation, 30(1), 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892902000079
Asmin, F., Darusman, D., Ichwandi, I., & Suharjito, D. (2019). Mainstreaming community-based forest management in West Sumatra: Social forestry arguments, support, and implementation. Forest and Society, 3, 77–96. https://doi.org/10.24259/fs.v3i1.4047
Bampton, J. F. R., Ebregt, A., & Banjade, M. R. (2007). Collaborative forest management in Nepal’s terai: Policy, practice and contestation. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 6(2), 30–43.
Belote, R. T. (2018). Species-rich national forests experience more intense human modification, but why? Forests, 9(12), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9120753
Bong, I. W., Moeliono, M., Wong, G. Y., & Brockhaus, M. (2019). What is success ? Gaps and trade-offs in assessing the performance of traditional social forestry systems in Indonesia. Forest and Society, 3, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.24259/fs.v3i1.5184
Chao, S. (2012). Forest peoples: Numbers across the world. In Forest peoples: numbers across the world. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-005-1116-6
Colchester, M., Ekadinata, A., Fay, C., Pasya, G., Indriani, E., Situmorang, L., …, & Gaveau, D. (2005). Facilitating agroforestry development through land and tree tenure reforms in Indonesia (No. ICRAF Southeast Asia Working Paper; No. 2005-2). Bogor.
Crawley, M. J. (2013). The R book (2nd Ed.). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118448908
De Royer, S., Van Noordwijk, M., & Roshetko, J. M. (2018). Does community-based forest management in Indonesia devolve social justice or social costs? International Forestry Review, 20(2), 167–180. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554818823767609
Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., Carpenter, S. R., Liu, J., Alberti, M., Folke, C., …, & Taylor, W. W. (2007). Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science, 317(5844), 1513–1516. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/317/5844/1513
Djamhuri, T. L. (2012). The effect of incentive structure to community participation in a social forestry program on state forest land in Blora District, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 25, 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.02.004
Donovan, D. G., & Puri, R. K. (2016). Learning from traditional knowledge of non-timber forest products: Penan benalui and the autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo. Ecology and Society, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.5751/es-00678-090303
Duthy, S., & Bolo-duthy, B. (2003). Empowering people’s organizations in community-based forest management in the Philippines: The community organizing role of NGOs. Annals of Tropical Research, 25(2), 13–27.
Erbaugh, J. T. (2019). Responsibilization and social forestry in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 109, 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2019.102019
Erbaugh, J. T., & Nurrochmat, D. R. (2019). Paradigm shift and business as usual through policy layering: Forest-related policy change in Indonesia (19992016). Land Use Policy, 86, 136–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.04.021
Erbaugh, J. T., Nurrochmat, D. R., & Purnomo, H. (2016). Regulation, formalization, and smallholder timber production in northern Central Java, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, 91(5), 867–880. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-0037-6
Erbaugh, J. T., & Oldekop, J. A. (2018). Forest landscape restoration for livelihoods and well-being. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 32, 76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.05.007
Feintrenie, L., Schwarze, S., & Levang, P. (2010). Are local people conservationists? Analysis of transition dynamics from agroforests to monoculture plantations in Indonesia. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 37. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03870-150437
Fisher, M.R., Moeliono, M., Mulyana, A., Yuliani, E. L., Adriadi, A., Kamaluddin, …, & Sahide, M. A. K. (2018). Assessing the new social forestry project in Indonesia: recognition, livelihood and conservation ? International Forestry Review, 20(3), 346–361.
Fisher, Micah R, Dhiaulhaq, A., & Sahide, M. A. K. (2019). The politics, economies, and ecologies of Indonesia’ s third generation of social forestry: An introduction to the special section. Forest and Society, 3, 152–170. https://doi.org/10.24259/fs.v3i1.6348
Haddad, N. M., Brudvig, L. A., Clobert, J., Davies, K. F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R. D., …, & Townshend, J. R. (2015). Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances, 1(2),19. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500052
Hajjar, R., Oldekop, J. A., Cronkleton, P., Etue, E., Newton, P., Russel, A. J. M., …, & Agrawal, A. (2016). The data not collected on community forestry. Conservation Biology, 30(6), 1357–1362. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12732
Harada, K., & Wiyono. (2014). Certification of a community-based forest enterprise for improving institutional management and household income: A case from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Small-Scale Forestry, 13(1), 47–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-013-9240-8
Harbi, J., Erbaugh, J. T., Sidiq, M., Haasler, B., & Nurrochmat, D. R. (2018). Making a bridge between livelihoods and forest conservation: Lessons from non timber forest products’ utilization in South Sumatera, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 94, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2018.05.011
Hariyadi, B., & Ticktin, T. (2012). From shifting cultivation to cinnamon agroforestry: Changing agricultural practices among the Serampas in the Kerinci Seblat National Park, Indonesia. Human Ecology, 40(2), 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9481-8
Heripan, H., Taqwa, R., Putro Priadi, D., Milantara, N., & Harbi, J. (2019). Implementation of social forestry policy around The Meranti Sungai Merah Protection Forest Area. Sriwijaya Journal of Environment, 4(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.22135/sje.2019.4.1.42
Hiratsuka, M., Nakama, E., Satriadi, T., Fauzi, H., Aryadi, M., & Morikawa, Y. (2019). An approach to achieve sustainable development goals through participatory land and forest conservation: a case study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 38(6), 558–571. https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2019.1598440
Kubo, Y., Lee, J. H., Fujiwara, T., Septiana, R. M., & Iwasa, Y. (2018). Profit sharing and agroforestry: A theoretical study of potential conflicts in managing illegal logging risk in tropical forests. Theoretical Ecology, 11(4), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12080-018-0381-4
Lawlor, K., Madeira, E. M., Blockhus, J., & Ganz, D. J. (2013). Community participation and benefits in REDD+: A review of initial outcomes and lessons. Forests, 4, 296–318. https://doi.org/10.3390/f4020296
Liu, P., & Ravenscroft, N. (2016). Collective action in China’s recent collective forestry property rights reform. Land Use Policy, 59, 402–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.09.011
Mahanty, S., Guernier, J., & Yasmi, Y. (2009). A fair share? Sharing the benefits and costs of collaborative forest management. International Forestry Review, 11(2), 268–280. https://doi.org/10.1505/ifor.11.2.268
Mahanty, S., Gronow, J., Nurse, M., Malla, Y., & Consultant, I. (2006). Reducing poverty through community based forest management in Asia. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 5(1), 78–89.
Mahdi, Shivakoti, G. P., & Schmidt-Vogt, D. (2016). Livelihood change and livelihood sustainability in the uplands of Lembang Subwatershed, West Sumatra Province of Indonesia, in a changing natural resources management context. Environmental Management, 43, 84–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805451-2.00003-X
Mansuri, G., & Rao, V. (2004). Community-based and -driven development: A critical review. The World Bank Research Observer, 19(1), 1–39. https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkh012
Massiri, S. D., Nugroho, B., Kartodihardjo, H., & Soekmadi, R. (2019). Institutional sustainability of a community conservation agreement in Lore Lindu National Park. Forest and Society, 3, 64–76. https://doi.org/10.24259/fs.v3i1.5204
McGrath, F. L., Erbaugh, J. T., Leimona, B., Amaruzaman, S., Rahadian, N. P., & Carrasco, L. R. (2018). Green without envy: How social capital alleviates tensions from a payments for ecosystem services (PES) program in Indonesia. Ecology and Society, 23(4), 10. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10181-230410
[MOEF] Ministry of Environment and Forestry. (2016). Permen LHK Nomor P.83 tentang Perhutanan Sosial. Indonesia.
Moeliono, M., Thuy, P. T., Bong, I. W., & Wong, G. Y. (2017). Social forestry-why and for whom ? A comparison of policies in Vietnam and Indonesia. Forest and Society, 1, 78–97.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., Altman, D., Antes, G., …, & Tugwell, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement (Chinese edition). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 7(9), 889–896. https://doi.org/10.3736/jcim20090918
Mulyoutami, E., Rismawan, R., & Joshi, L. (2009). Local knowledge and management of simpukng (forest gardens) among the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(10), 2054–2061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.042
Myers, R., Intarini, D., Thomas, M., & Maryudi, A. (2017). Policies on customary forests. Land Use Policy, 66, 205–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.039
Nawir, A. A., & Santoso, L. (2005). Mutually beneficial company-community partnerships in plantation development: emerging lessons from Indonesia. International Forestry Review, 7(3), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1505/ifor.2005.7.3.177
Ndan, I., Makoto, I., & M.A., S. (2009). Importance of boundaries in customary resource management decentralized policies: Case study in Indigenous Kenyah, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Forest Economics, 55(3), 35–43.
Newton, P., Miller, D. C., Augustine, M., Byenkya, A., & Agrawal, A. (2016). Land use policy who are forest-dependent people ? A taxonomy to aid livelihood and land use decision-making in forested regions. Land Use Policy, 57, 388–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.05.032
Ojha, H. R., Ford, R., Keenan, R. J., & Race, D. (2016). Delocalizing communities: Changing forms of community engagement in natural resources governance. World Development, xx. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.06.017
Olsson, E. G. A., & Gooch, P. (2019). Natural resource conflicts and sustainable development in earthscan studies in natural resource management. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=jQuWDwAAQBAJ
Pagdee, A., Kim, Y. S., & Daugherty, P. J. (2006). What makes community forest management successful: A meta-study from community forests throughout the world. Society and Natural Resources, 19(1), 33–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920500323260
Pathak, B. R., Yi, X., & Bohara, R. (2017). Community based forestry in Nepal: Status, issues and lessons learned. International Journal of Sciences, 6(3), 119–129. https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1232
Pelletier, J., Gélinas, N., & Skutsch, M. (2016). The place of community forest management in the REDD+ landscape. Forest, 7(170), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7080170
Permadi, D. B., Burton, M., Pandit, R., Race, D., & Walker, I. (2018). Local community’s preferences for accepting a forestry partnership contract to grow pulpwood in Indonesia: A choice experiment study. Forest Policy and Economics, 91, 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2017.11.008
Phuc, T. X., & Nghi, T. H. (2014). Forest land allocation in the context of forestry sector restructuring: Opportunities for forestry development and upland livelihood improvement. Hue: Tropenbos International Viet Nam
Poor, E. E., Frimpong, E., Imron, M. A., & Kelly, M. J. (2019). Protected area effectiveness in a sea of palm oil : A Sumatran case study. Biological Conservation, 234, 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.018
Pulhin, J. M., Inoue, M., & Enters, T. (2007). Three decades of community-based forest management in the Philippines: Emerging lessons for sustainable and equitable forest management. International Forestry Review, 9(4), 865–883. https://doi.org/10.1505/ifor.9.4.865
Purnomo, H., Mendoza, G. A., & Prabhu, R. (2004). Model for collaborative planning of community-managed resources based on qualitative soft systems approach. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 16(1), 106–131.
Purnomo, H., & Mendoza, G. (2011). A system dynamics model for evaluating collaborative forest management: A case study in Indonesia. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 18(2), 164–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2010.549664
Purnomo, H., Okarda, B., Dermawan, A., Pebrial, Q., Pacheco, P., Nurfatriani, F., & Suhendang, E. (2020). Forest policy and economics reconciling oil palm economic development and environmental conservation in Indonesia: A value chain dynamic approach. Forest Policy and Economics, 111, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2020.102089
Rahman, S. A., Jacobsen, J. B., Healey, J. R., Roshetko, J. M., & Sunderland, T. (2017). Finding alternatives to swidden agriculture: Does agroforestry improve livelihood options and reduce pressure on existing forest? Agroforestry Systems, 91(1), 185–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-9912-4
[RRI] Rights and Resources Initiative. (2015). Who owns the world’s land? A global baseline of formally recognized indigenous and community land rights. Retrieved from RRI website: http://www.rightsandresources.org/wp-content/uploads/GlobalBaseline_web.pdf
Rosyadi, S., Birner, R., & Zeller, M. (2005). Creating political capital to promote devolution in the forestry sector-A case study of the forest communities in Banyumas District, Central Java, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 7(2), 213–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-9341(03)00027-3
Sabin, S., Dieudonne, B., Mitchell, J., White, J., Chin, C., & Morikawa, R. (2019). Community-based watershed change : A case study in Eastern Congo. Forest, 10(475), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060475
Scheba, A., & Mustalahti, I. (2015). Rethinking “expert” knowledge in community forest management in Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics, 60, 7–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2014.12.007
Schlager, E., & Ostrom, E. (1992). Property-rights regimes and natural resources: A conceptual analysis. Land and Economics, 68(3), 249–262.
Suhardjito, D., & Wulandari, C. (2019). A reflection of social forestry in 2019: Towards inclusive and collaborative government approaches. Forest and Society, 3, 137–140. https://doi.org/10.24259/fs.v3i1.6099
Suwarno, A., Nawir, A. A., Julmansyah, & Kurniawan. (2009). Participatory modelling to improve partnership schemes for future community-based forest management in Sumbawa District, Indonesia. Environmental Modelling and Software, 24(12), 1402–1410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.07.001
Tomaselli, M. F., & Hajjar, R. (2011). Promoting community forestry enterprises in national REDD+ strategies: A business approach. Forests, 2(1), 283–300. https://doi.org/10.3390/f2010283
Treue, T., Ngaga, Y. M., Meilby, H., Lund, J. F., Kajembe, G., Iddi, S., …, & Theilade, I. (2014). Does participatory forest management promote sustain- able forest utilisation in Tanzania ? International Forestry Review, 16(1), 23–38.
Venter, O., Sanderson, E. W., Magrach, A., Allan, J. R., Beher, J., Jones, K. R., …, & Watson, J. E. M. (2016). Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nature Communications, 7, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12558
Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., Melillo, J. M., Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., …, & Melillo, J. M. (1997). Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.494
Wollenberg, E. K. (1998). A conceptual framework and typology for explaining the outcomes of local forest management. Journal of World Forest Resource Management. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10568/17966
Xu, J., White, A., & Lele, U. (2010). China’s forest tenure reforms impacts and implications for choice, conservation, and climate change. Washington DC: Rights and Resources Initiative.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.