The study aimed to gather evidence on the potential of golden berry (GB) juice in improving blood glucose level, insulin level, and insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to quercetin supplement in animal model. This study used true experimental pre-post-test study with control group design. Twenty five Wistar male rats were divided into five groups: healthy group (K-), T2DM positive control group (K+), T2DM group with 1 ml/200 g BW/day of GB juice (X1), T2DM group with 5 ml/200 g BW/day of GB juice (X2), and T2DM group with 6 mg/200 g BW/day of quercetin (X3). The T2DM rasts were obtained from healthy rats induced by high-fat feed and Streptozotocin (STZ). The result showed that various dosages of GB juice (X1 and X2) were able to lower blood glucose level (-79.15; -110.44; -108.20) and HOMA-IR (-2.40; -2.92; -3.02). In addition, it was also able to increase insulin level (0.26; 1.99; 1.42) compared to (K+) group (p<0.05). In conclusion, GB juice was able to lower blood glucose level, insulin resistance, and increase insulin level in T2DM rats. The GB juice dosage of 1 ml/200 g BW/day and 5 ml/200 g BW/day were better in lowering the blood glucose level and improving insulin resistance compared to quercetin supplement.
Al-numair KS, Chandramohan G, Veeramani C, Alsaif MA. 2015. Ameliorative effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid, on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox Rep 20(5):198–209. https://doi.org/10.1179/1351000214Y.0000000117.
Anhe FF, Desjardins Y, Pilon G, Dudonne S, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM, Marette A. 2013. Polyphenols and type 2 diabetes : A prospective review. Pharma Nutrition 1(4):105–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phanu.201307.004.
Anjani PP, Damayanthi E, Rimbawan R, Handharyani, E. 2018. Potential of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) extract to reduce blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Gizi Pangan 13(1):47–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2018.13.1.47-54.
Antony PJ, Gandhi GR, Stanlin A, Balakrishna K, Toppo E, Sivasankaran K, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi NA. 2017. Myoinositol ameliorates high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats through promoting insulin receptor signaling. Biomed Pharmacother 88:1098–1113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.170
Chikezie PC, Ojiako OA, Ogbuji AC. 2015. Oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Int J Biol Chem 9(3):92–109. doi: 10.3923/ijbc.2015.92.109.
Chis IC, Coseriu A, Simedrea R, Orors A, Nagy AL, Clichici S. 2015. In vivo effects of quercetin in association with moderate exercise training in improving streptozotocin-induced aortic tissue injuries. Molecules 20(12):21770–2178. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219802.
Choi H, Jeong SM, Huh GH, Kim JI. 2015. Quercetin ameliorates insulin sensitivity and liver steatosis partly by increasing adiponectin expression in ob/ob mice. Food Sci Biotechnol 24(1):273–279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0036-9.
Esteghamati A, Ashraf H, Khalilzadeh O, Zandieh A, Nakhjavani M, Rashidi A, Haghazali M, Asgari F. 2010. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome : Third national surveillance of risk factors of non- communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007). Nutr Metab 7(26):1–8.
Garcia-bailo B, El-Sohemy A, Badawi A. 2011. Vitamins D, C, and E in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Biologics 2011(5):7–19. doi:10.2147/BTT.S14417.
Ghasemi A, Khalfi S, Jedi S. 2014. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes. Hung Acta Physiol 101(4):408–420. https://doi.org/10.1556/APhysiol.101.2014.4.2
Gheibi S, Kashfi K, Ghasemi A. 2017. A practical guide for induction of type-2 diabetes in rat: Incorporating a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Biomed Pharmacother 95:605–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.098.
Hassan AI, Ghoneim MAM. 2013. A possible inhibitory effect of physalis (Physalis pubescens L.) on diabetes in male rats. World Appl Sci J 21(5):681–688. doi:10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.5.7220.
[IDF] International Diabetes Federation, 2017. IDF Diabetes Atlas. https://www.idf.org/e-library/epidemiology-research/diabetes-atlas/134-idf-diabetes-atlas-8th-edition.html [Accessed 17th March 2018].
Kahn SE, Cooper ME, Prato SD. 2014. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Perspectives on the past, present and future. The Lancet 383(9922):1068–1083. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62154-6.
Larson AJ, Symons JD, Jalili T. 2012. Therapeutic potential of quercetin to decrease blood pressure: Review of Efficacy and mechanisms. American Society for Nutrition Adv Nutr 3(1):39–46. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001271
Luo C, Yang H, Tang C, Yao G, Kong L, He H, Zhou Y. 2015. Kaempferol alleviates insulin resistance via hepatic IKK / NF- κB signal in type 2 diabetic rats. Int Immunopharmacol 28(1):744–750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.07.018.
Puente LA, Pinto-Munoz CA, Castro ES, Cortes M. 2011. Physalis peruviana Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit: A review. Food Rres Int 44(7):1733–1740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.09.034.
Qatanani M, Lazar MA. 2007. Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance: Many choices on the menu. Genes Dev 21(12):1443–1455. doi:10.1101/gad.1550907.
Ramadan MF, Moersel JT. 2006. Impact of enzymatic treatment on chemical composition, physicochemical properties and radical scavenging activity of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice. J Sci Food Agric 87(3):452–460. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2728.
Sah SP, Singh B, Choudhary S, Kumar A . 2016. Animal models of insulin resistance: A review. Pharmacol Rep 68(6):1165–1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2016.07.010.
Sathyadevi M, Suchithra ER, Subramanian S. 2014. Physalis peruviana Linn. fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in high-fat diet low dose STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. J Pharm Res 8(4):625–632.
[WHO] World Health Organization. 2000. General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. World Health Organization Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/66783/1/WHO_EDM_TRM_2000.1.pdf [Accessed 24th November 2017].
Zuloaga KL, Krasnow SM, Zhu X, Zhang W, Jouihan SA, Shangraw RE, Alkayed NJ, Marks DL. 2014. Mecha-nism of protection by soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in type 2 diabetic stroke. Plos One 9(5):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097529.