Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi Ekspor Kopi di Timor-Leste

Main Article Content

Vionencia P.S. Faria Freitas
Nunung Nuryartono
Amzul Rifin


The economy of Timor-Leste depends more on the oil and gas sector. Therefore, the non-oil and gas sector has been less of a priority in the political agenda of this country. However, the studies on the economy in Timor-Leste, especially on commodity exports are underdeveloped, based on that, this research will discuss coffee production as a potential commodity and consider it as the largest share of the non-oil economy among other export products in Timor-Leste. The puRp. . ose of this study is to have a deeper comprehension of the business context, and the coffee export barriers and to identify and analyze the factors that might influence coffee exports. This research study used qualitative descriptive and quantitative analysis. The qualitative data was obtained through interviews with three exporters in Timor-Leste, and quantitative data using secondary data was obtained through the panel data analysis that was used for over 14 years (2004-2018) in seven importing countries. The data is analyzed by approaching descriptive and gravity models. Based on the results of the qualitative descriptive research on the context of the coffee business in Timor-Leste, there is a marketing flow that starts from farmers to retailers and will be passed on to the companies or from farmers directly to the companies. One of the constraints that are faced by exporting companies is the document procedure process which usually will take a long bureaucracy. Furthermore, the results of the study by using the gravity model explain that the variables that have a significant effect on the volume of coffee exports in Timor-Leste are the real GDP per capita of the exporting, and importing countries, and the total population of the importing countries.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Faria FreitasV. P., NuryartonoN., & RifinA. (2023). Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi Ekspor Kopi di Timor-Leste. Jurnal Agribisnis Indonesia (Journal of Indonesian Agribusiness), 11(1), 174-189.
Author Biography

Vionencia P.S. Faria Freitas, Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa'e

Av. Cidade de Lisboa, Díli, Timor-Leste


Abafita, J., & Tadesse, T. (2021). Determinants of global coffee trade : Do RTAs matter ? Gravity model analysis. Cogent Economics & Finance, 9(1).

Abidin, I. S. Z., Bakar, N. A., & Sahlan, R. (2013). The Determinants of Exports between Malaysia and the OIC Member Countries: A Gravity Model Approach. Procedia Economics and Finance, 5(13), 12–19.

Adiguna, A. D. 2021. Analisis Daya Saing Dan Faktor yang Memengaruhi Ekspor Rumput Laut Olahan Indonesia Di Pasar Dunia [tesis]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Ahluwalia, M. S., Carter, N. G., & Chenery, H. B. (1979). Growth and poverty in developing countries. Journal of Development Economics, 6(3), 299–341.

Anderson, J. E., & Van Wincoop, E. (2003). Gravity with gravitas: A solution to the border puzzle. American Economic Review, 93(1), 170–192.

Baier, S. L., Yotov, Y. V, Ifo, C. E. S., Aper, W. O. P., & Olicy, C. A. T. R. P. (2017). Gravity , Distance , and International Trade. CESIFO Working Paper.

Bergeijk, P. A. G. Van, & Brakman, S. 2010. The Gravity Model in International Trade (Cambrige U). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bergstrand, J. H. (1985). “The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence.” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 67, 474–81.

Carolina, L. T., & Aminata, J. (2019). Analisis Daya Saing dan Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Batu Bara. Diponegoro Journal Of Economics, 1, 9–21.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2017). Inception Report Support for Preparation of a National Coffee Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste. 1–70.

Costa, M. S. Da. 2012. Análise da Competitividade Do Café Em Timor Leste Em Função Da Acessibilidade Das Plantações [tesis]. Ponta Delgada: Universidade dos Açores.

Diresaun Geral Estatistika. 2019. Timor-Leste Em Números. Dili. Timor-Leste.

Gilarso. 2001. Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi Mikro. Yogyakarta: Kanisius

Graciana, C., Ambarawati, I. G. A. A., Darmawan, D. P., & Budiasa, I. W. (2019). The Nucleus-Estate and Smallholder Partnership towards Export Competitiveness of Timor Leste Coffee. Modern Economy, 10(7), 1655–1670.

Guterres, V. C., Henriques, P. D. S., Sequeira, P., Carvalho, M. L. S., & Tavares, M. (2010). Comercialização Interna e Externa de Café em Timor Leste: o Caso da Empresa TimorcoRp. LTD. 1–21. IV Congresso da APDEA.

Irshad, M. S., Wu, Z. J., Xin, Q., & Khan, J. (2021). The application of gravity equation while accessing the environment of Pakistan-ASEAN technological trade flows. Jurnal Perspektif Pembiayaan dan Pembangunan Daerah, 9(1), 29–42.

Jayasooriya, S. P. 2021. Bayesian Gravity Model for Digitalization on Bilateral Trade Integration in Asia. ADBI Working Paper 1232, Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.

Kalbasi, D. H. (2001). “The Gravity Model and Global Trade Flows.” Paper in the Conference of EcoMod, Washington DC.

Kusuma, L. R., & Firdaus, M. (2015). Daya Saing dan Faktor yang Memengaruhi Volume Ekspor Sayuran Indonesia Terhadap Negara Tujuan Utama. Jurnal Manajemen dan Agribisnis, 12(3), 226–236.

Lawless, M., & Whelan, K. 2007. A Note on Trade Costs and Distance. Issue October. Central Bank of Ireland. Ireland.

Lembang, M. B., & Pratomo, Y. (2013). Ekspor Karet Indonesia ke-15 Negara Tujuan Utama Setelah Pemberlakuan Kebijakan ACFTA. Trikonomika, 12(1), 20.

Linneman, H. 1966. An Econometric Study Of International Trade lows. Amsterdam: Holland Publishing.
Mankiw, N. G. 2006. Pengantar Teori Ekonomi Makro. Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.

Mas, Y., Ambarita, R., & Sirait, T. 2019. Penerapan Model Gravitasi Data Panel : Kajian Perdagangan Internasional Indonesia ke Negara Anggota ASEAN. Di dalam: Seminar Nasional Official Statistics 2019. Prosiding STIS: Jakarta Timur, 2019. hlm 726–737.

Mashari, S. 2019. Analisis Daya Saing dan Faktor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi Ekspor Udang Beku dan Udang Olahan Indonesia di Pasar Internasional [tesis]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Maulana, A. S., Nurmalina, R., & Suharno. (2016). The Analysis of Affecting Factors to the Export of Rattan Furniture Indonesia in the International Market. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5(10), 1514–1519.

Meiri, A., Nurmalina, R., & Rifin, A. (2013). Analisis Perdagangan Kakao Indonesia di Pasar Internasional. Journal of Industrial and Beverage Crops, 4(1), 39–46.

Muharami, G., & Novianti, T. (2018). Analisis Kinerja Ekspor Komoditas Karet Indonesia ke Amerika Latin. Jurnal Agribisnis Indonesia, 6(1), 15–26.

Okhotnikov, A., Subhani, M. I., Khodor, S., & Ushakov, D. (2021). Gravity model and Pakistan - China Trade. EDP Sciences. 06036, 1–8.

Old KM. Cristovao, C. S. 2003. A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. Agriculture new directions for a new nation East Timor (Timor-Leste); East Timor, 1-3 Oktober 2022. hlm 139-145.
República Democrática de Timor-Leste (RDTL). (2013). Timor-Leste Plano Estratégico de Desenvolvimento 2011-2030. 237. Timor-Leste.

Poyhonen, P. (1963). A tentative model for the volume of trade between countries. Weltwirsch Archiv, 90, 93–100.

Saif, N. M. A., Ruan, J., & Obrenovic, B. (2021). Sustaining Trade during COVID-19 Pandemic : Establishing a Conceptual Model Including COVID-19 Impact. Sustainability, 13(10). 5418.

Saptanto, S., & Soetjitpto, W. (2010). Analisis Model Ekspor Komoditas Perikanan Indonesia Dengan Pendekatan Gravity Model. J. Bijak Dan Riset Sosek KP, 5(2), 169.

Sunaryati, R. (2018). Determinants of Indonesian Crude Palm Oil Export: Gravity Model Approach. Jurnal Ekonomi & Studi Pembangunan, 19(2), 134–141.

Suryana, A. T., Fariyanti, A., & Rifin, A. (2014). Analisis Perdagangan Kakao Indonesia di Pasar Internasional. Jurnal Tanaman Industri Dan Penyegar, 1(1), 29–40.

Tietenberg, T. H. 2000. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. 5th edition. New York: Addison Wesley.
Tinbergen, J. 1962. Shaping the World Economy : Suggestions for an Intemational Economic Policy. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.

Utami, N. M. A. W., Putra, D. D., & Dewi, R. K. (2018). Analisis Daya Saing dan Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Kopi Indonesia di Pasar Internasional. Manajemen Agribisnis, 6(1), 8–15. 2355-0759

Ximenes, M. A. 2010. A Tecnologia Pós - Colheita e Qualidade Física e Organoléptica do Café Arábica de Timor [disertasi]. Portugal: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa.

Yang, Y. S., Leone, R. P., & Alden, D. L. (1992). A Market Expansion Ability Approach to Identify Potential Exporters. Journal of Marketing 56(1), 84–96.

Yuniarti, D. (2007). Analisis Determinan Perdagangan Bilateral Indonesia Pendekatan Gravity Model. Economics Journal of Emerging Market, 12(2), 99-109.