Increased free radicals cause damage to cells and tissues in the body. This is due to the lack of antioxidant ability in the body, therefore it requires external antioxidants. One of the plants that can be used as a source of antioxidants is water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) because it has polyphenol compounds. However, polyphenolic compounds are thermolabile, so the drying process is important in preparation and extraction. Thus, this study aimed to extract polyphenolic compounds from the leaves of the water lettuce (P. stratiotes) with different drying methods and to determine the antioxidant activity of these compounds. Drying was carried out by 3 different methods, namely sun drying, oven at 40ºC, and freeze drying and repeated 3 times. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Duncan's post-hoc test and presented in graphical form. The results showed the highest extraction yield on freeze-drying (15.64±1.19%) and the lowest on sun-drying (8.48±3.34%). Total polyphenols and flavonoids were also highest in the freeze-drying method (32.94±1.34 mg GAE/g dry sample and 146.80±5.29 mg QE/g dry sample, respectively), while the lowest was in sun-drying. Whereas the antioxidant activity of freeze-drying (IC50 266.33±5.77 mg/mL) and oven (IC50 305.67±22.85 mg/mL) had not significantly different. However, these activities were more effective in inhibiting free radicals when compared with sun-drying (IC50 462.67±56.52 mg/mL). Therefore, freeze-drying and oven-drying can be an option as an appropriate drying method to extract polyphenol and flavonoid compounds which are used as antioxidants.
Botterweck, A. A. M., Verhagen, H., Goldbohm, R. A., Kleinjans, J., van den Brandt, P. A., (2000). Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38, 599-605.
Chandra, S., Khan, S., Avula, B., Lata, H., Yang, M. H., Elsohly, M. A., Khan, I. A. (2014). Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: a comparative study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 253875.
Chew, K. K., Ng, S. Y., Thoo, Y. Y., Khoo, M. Z., Wan Aida, W. M., Ho, C. W. (2011). Effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature on the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Centella asiatica extracts. International Food Research Journal, 18, 571-578.
Chew, Y. L., Lim, Y. Y., Omar, M., Khoo, K. S. (2008). Antioxidant Activity of Three Edible Seaweeds from Two Areas in South East Asia. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41, 1067-1072.
Chirinos, R., Rogez, H., Campos, D., Pedreschi, R., Larondelle, Y. (2007). Optimization of extraction conditions of antioxidant phenolic compounds from mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón) tubers. Separation and Purification Technology, 55, 217-225.
Gümüşay, Ö. A., Borazan, A. A., Ercal, N., Demirkol, O. (2015). Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger. Food Chem, 173, 156-162.
Hassan, S. W., Umar, R. A., Matazu, I. K., Maishanu, H. M., Abbas, A Y., Sani, A. A. (2007). The Effect of Drying Method on the Nutrients and Non-Nutrients Composition of Leaves of Leptadenia hastata (Asclipiadaceae). Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2, 188-192.
Kankara, S., Mustafa, M., Ibrahim, M. H., Nulit, R., Go, R. (2014). Effect of Drying Methods, Solid-Solvent Ratio, Extraction Time and Extraction Temperature on Phenolic Antioxidants and Antioxidant Activity of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae) Leaves Water Extract. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2, 1378-1392.
Kornienko, J. S., Smirnova, I. S., Pugovkina, N. A., Ivanova, J. S., Shilina, M. A., Grinchuk, T. M., Shatrova, A. N., Aksenov, N. D., Zenin, V. V., Nikolsky, N. N., Lyublinskaya, O. G. (2019). High doses of synthetic antioxidants induce premature senescence in cultivated mesenchymal stem cells. Scientific Reports, 9, 1296.
Ledesma-Escobar, C. A., Priego-Capote, F., Luque de Castro, M. D. (2016). Comparative Study of the Effect of Sample Pretreatment and Extraction on the Determination of Flavonoids from Lemon (Citrus limon). Plos One, 11, e0148056.
Lee, C. Y., Nanah, C. N., Held, R. A., Clark, A. R., Huynh, U. G. T., Maraskine, M. C., Uzarski, R. L., McCracken, J., Sharma, A. (2015). Effect of electron donating groups on polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers. Biochimie, 111, 125-134.
Lee, N. Y., Yunus, M. A. C., Idham, Z., Ruslan, M. S. H., Aziz, A. H. A., Irwansyah, N. (2016). Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 162, 012028.
Li, Y., Li, S., Lin, S. J., Zhang, J. J., Zhao, C. N., Li, H. B. (2017). Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds. Molecules, 22, 1481.
Liguori, I., Russo, G., Curcio, F., Bulli, G., Aran, L., Della-Morte, D., Gargiulo, G., Testa, G., Cacciatore, F., Bonaduce, D., Abete, P. (2018). Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 13, 757-772.
Lobo, V., Patil, A., Phatak, A., Chandra, N. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4, 118-126.
Marseglia, L., Manti, S., D’Angelo, G., Nicotera, A., Parisi, E., Di Rosa, G., Gitto, E., Arrigo, T. (2014). Oxidative Stress in Obesity: A Critical Component in Human Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 378-400.
Matyas, M., Hasmasanu, M. G., Zaharie, G. (2019). Antioxidant Capacity of Preterm Neonates Assessed by Hydrogen Donor Value. Medicina, 55, 720.
Mutha, R. E., Tatiya, A. U., Surana, S. J. (2021). Flavonoids as natural phenolic compounds and their role in therapeutics: an overview. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 25.
Nasir, W. N. H. W., Ibrahim, N. N. A., Woon, K. H., Abu Bakar Sajak, A., Sofian-Seng, N. S., Wan Mustapha, W. A., Abdul Rahman, H. (2021). Effects of Different Drying Methods and Solvents on Biological Activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Leaves Extract. Sains Malaysiana, 50, 2207-2218.
Nowak, D., Jakubczyk, E. (2020). The Freeze-Drying of Foods—The Characteristic of the Process Course and the Effect of Its Parameters on the Physical Properties of Food Materials. Foods, 9, 1488.
Phaniendra, A., Jestadi, D. B., Periyasamy, L. (2014). Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 30, 11-26.
Pizzino, G., Irrera, N., Cucinotta, M., Pallio, G., Mannino, F., Arcoraci, V., Squadrito, F., Altavilla, D., Bitto, A. (2017). Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017, 1-13.
Silva-Espinoza, M. A., Ayed, C., Foster, T., Camacho, M. d. M., Martínez-Navarrete, N. (2019). The Impact of Freeze-Drying Conditions on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds of a Freeze-Dried Orange Puree. Foods, 9, 32.
Sudirman, S., Herpandi, Safitri, E., Apriani, E. F., Taqwa, F. H. (2022). Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) leave extracts. Food Research, 6(4), 205-210.
Sudirman, S., Herpandi, H., Nopianti, R., Dwita L. S., Wasahla, W., Mareta, H., (2017). Phenolic Contents, Tannin, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E of Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 33, 3173-3176.
Wongklom, A., Moonsin, P. (2018). Effect of drying methods on antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Phakwan (Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.) powder. SNRU Journal of Science and Technology, 10, 96-103.
Yi, W., Wetzstein, H. Y. (2011). Effects of Drying and Extraction Conditions on the Biochemical Activity of Selected Herbs. HortScience, 46, 70-73.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.