Insidensi Penyakit, Identifikasi dan Keragaman Bakteri Burkholderia glumae, Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Bulir pada Beberapa Varietas Padi di Jawa Barat

Main Article Content

Ani Widarti
Giyanto Giyanto
Kikin Hamzah Mutaqin

Abstract

Incidence of Bacterial Grain Rot Disease, Identification, and Diversity of Burkolderia glumae in Some Rice Varieties in West Java


Rice rot disease caused by the bacteria Burkholderia glumae needs to be looked out, including in West Java as one of rice production center for Indonesia. This study was carried out to determine disease incidence, identity and diversity of B. glumae in several rice varieties grown in West Java Province. Sampling and observation of disease incidence were conducted in 9 districts.  Bacteria were isolated from rice grains with symptomatic rot, followed by biochemical and physiological tests involving Gram and growing tests at pH 4.8 and 2% NaCl.  Phenotypic variation was observed from the colony color on S-PG media, toxofalvin production, hypersensitivity response to tobacco leaves, and pathogenicity test on rice plants.  B. glumae specific primers, JLBgF/JLBgR, and bacteria universal 16S rRNA primers, 27F/1492R were used to determine molecular identity. Genotypic diversity analysis was performed using neighbour-joining tree method. Disease incidence was in the range of 0–73.3%, the highest was found in Dawuan District (Karawang) on var. Mekongga. The phenotypic observations showed 10 isolates belonging to type A colonies and 19 isolates of type B; 25 isolates produced toxoflavin; 29 isolates produced hypersensitivity responses to tobacco leaves and blight symptoms in rice plants. Identification using specific and universal primers confirmed that 29 isolates were B. glumae. The genotypic diversity analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that KRCH-2 isolates (Karawang) and INCH-6 (Indramayu) were closely related to B. glumae from China and America.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Widarti, A., Giyanto, G., & Mutaqin, K. H. (2020). Insidensi Penyakit, Identifikasi dan Keragaman Bakteri Burkholderia glumae, Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Bulir pada Beberapa Varietas Padi di Jawa Barat. Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia, 16(1), 9-20. https://doi.org/10.14692/jfi.16.1.9-20
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Ani Widarti, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Mahasiswa S2 Fitopatologi

Giyanto Giyanto, Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Institut Pertanian Bogor

Staf Pengajar Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Institut Pertanian Bogor

Kikin Hamzah Mutaqin, Departemen Proteksi Tanaman

Staf Pengajar Departemen Proteksi Tanaman Institut Pertanian Bogor

References

Accuweather. 2018. Indonesia cuaca. Tersedia pada https://www.accuweather.com. diunduh pada 17 Juli 2019.
Baharuddin, Harniati R, Faisal F. Yani A. Suparni, Hamid H, Kuswinanti T, Jahuddin R. 2017. Keberadaan penyakit busuk bulir (Burkolderia glumae) pada tanaman padi di Sulawesi Selatan. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Fitopatologi. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor. Hlm 19–16.
Bo Z, Lou MM, Huai Y, Xie GL, Luo JY, Xu LH. 2008. Isolation and identification of Burkholderia glumae from syptomless rice seeds. Chin J Rice Sci. 22(1):82–86.
Chun W, Jones JB. 2001. Gram negative bacteria: Burkholderia. Di dalam Schaad, NW, Jones JB, Chun W, editor. Laboratory Guide for Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 3rd edition. New York (US): APS Press. Hlm 1 – 6.
Cui ZQ, Zhu B, Xie GL, Li B, Huang SW. 2016. Research status and prospect of Burkholderia glumae, the pathogen causing bacterial panicle blight. Rice Science. 23(3):111–118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2016.01.007.
[DBPTP] Direktorat Bina Perlindungan Tanaman Pangan. 1992. Penyakit padi. Laporan Akhir. Jakarta (ID): Direktrorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan Kementerian Pertanian.
[DPTP] Direktorat Perlindungan Tanaman Pangan. 2018. Petunjuk teknis pengamatan dan pelaporan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan dan dampak perubahan iklim (OPT-DPI). Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Pertanian. Hlm 17.
Fory PA, Triplett L, Ballen C, Abello JF, Duitama J, Aricapa MG, Prado GA, Correa F, Hamilton J, Leach JE, Tohme J, Mosquera GM. 2014. Comparative analysis of two emerging rice seed bacterial pathogens. Phytopathology. 104(5):436–444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-07-13-0186-R.
Handiyanti M, Subandiyah S. Joko T. 2018. Deteksi molekuler Burkholderia glumae, penyebab penyakit hawar malai padi. JPTI. 22(1):98–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.30259.
Jeong Y, Kim J, Suhyun K, Yongsung K. 2003. Toxoflavin produced by Burkholderia glumae causing rice grain rot is responsible for inducing bacterial wilt in many field crops. Plant disease. 87(8):890–894. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.8.890.
Joko T. 2017. Burkholderia glumae sebagai emerging pathogen: status, potensi kerusakan, dan strategi pengendalian. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Fitopatologi. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor. Hlm 27–35.
Karki HS. 2010. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular characteristic associated with virulence of Burkholderia glumae: the major causative agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. [Thesis]. Nepal (IN): Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, TU.
Karki HS, Shrestha B, Han JW, Groth De, Barphagha IK, Rush MC, Melanson RA, Kim BS, Ham JH. 2012. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation, virulence, and DNA fingerprint among strain of Burkholderia glumae. Plus One. 7(9):1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045376.
[Kementan] Kementerian Pertanian. 2015. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No 51/Permentan/KR.010/9/2015 tentang Jenis Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina. Jakarta (ID): Kementan.
[Kementan] Kementerian Pertanian. 2018. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No 31/Permentan/KR.010/7/2018 tentang perubahan kedua atas peraturan meneteri pertanian nomor 93/permentan/OT.140./12/2011 tentang Jenis Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina. Jakarta (ID): Kementan.
Lim JY, Lee TH, Nahm BH, Choi YD. Kim M, Hwang I. 2009. Genome announcement. Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia glumae BGR1. J Bacteriol. 191(11):3758–3759. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00349-09.
Lu W, Pan L, Zao H, Jia Y, Wang Y, Yu X, Wang X. 2014. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves. The Crop Journal. 2:398–406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2014.06.005.
Nandakumar R, Shahjana AKM, Yuan XL, Dickstein ER, Groth DE, Clark CA, Cartwright RD, Rush MC. 2009. Burkholderia glumae and B. gladioli cause bacterial panicle blight in rice in the southern united states. Plant Dis. 93(9):896–905. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0896.
Pradhaph M, Selvisabhanayakam, Mathvianan V, Ayyapan JVAA, Kumar SS. 2011. Study on 16S rRNA based PCR Method for specific detection on Salmonella entrica typhi from gut of infected silkworm bomyx mori . JSIR. 70(11):909–911.
Tsushima S. 1996. Epidemiology of bacterial grain rot of rice caused by Pseudomonas glumae. JARQ. 30:85–89.
Safni I, Lubis K. 2019. Screening for disease resistance in rice varieties against bacterial panicle blight disease (Burkholderia glumae) in Northern Sumatra of Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 260(1):012118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012118.
Wiyono S, Mutaqin KH, Hidayat SH, Supramana, Widodo, 2017. Emerging disease pada tanaman pertanian: strategi dan opsi kebijakan pengendalian. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Fitopatologi. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor. Hlm 1–11.