PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF : FENOMENA PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF DI KAWASAN INDONESIA BAGIAN BARAT DAN INDONESIA BAGIAN TIMUR

  • Sholihah Amalina Dyah Hapsari Staf Kementerian Perdagangan dan Mahasiswa Magister Program Studi Ilmu Ekonomi, FEM IPB
  • Manuntun Parulian Hutagaol Staf Pengajar FEM IPB
  • Alla Asmara

Abstract

The growth of the middle class in Indonesia that occurred during the last ten years allegedly raised by the economic growth that is likely to increase in the same period. An economic theory which states that inclusive growth is growth that is able to bring the middle class makes economists focus on inclusive growth and the middle class itself. But in fact, the middle class in Indonesia is dominated by the lower middle class whose features are similar to the poor. These issues indicate a gap in the economy. In addition, to talk about the gap, there is no doubt that this issue has long been a discussion in Indonesia, especially the gap between western Indonesia and eastern Indonesia. Therefore this study was conducted to analyze whether it is true that inclusive growth has occurred in Indonesia and how the phenomena that occur in the western part of Indonesia and eastern Indonesia. Based on the data from 33 provinces in Indonesia over a period of 5 years, ie from 2008 to 2012, this study of the Measured inclusive growth by adopting the concept formulated by Klasen (2010) on-Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR). This study of the processing of data performed using Excel and SPSS software. The results found that economic growth in Indonesia in 20082012 has not been inclusive in reducing poverty, lowering inequality and increase employment. The results also show that inclusive growth is not a consistent phenomenon in Indonesia. The phenomenon of inclusive growth in reducing poverty, lowering inequality, and increasing employment are more prevalent in Western Indonesia (IBB).
 
Key words : inclusive, growth, middle class, panel data, excel
 
 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ali, Ifzal. 2007. Inequality and the Imperative for Inclusive Growth in Asia. Asian Development Bank.

Ali, Ifzal dan Hyun Hwa Son. 2007. Measuring Inclusive Growth. Asian Development Review Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 11–31. Manila: ADB.

Ansori, Mohammad Hasan. 2009. Consumerism and the Emergence of a New Middle Class in Globalizing Indonesia. EXPLORATIONS a graduate student journal of southeast asian studies, University of Hawai’i.

Arsyad, Lincolyn. 1999. Pengantar dan Perencanaan Pembangunan Ekonomi Daerah. BPFE : Yogyakarta.

Wie, T.K. 1983. Pembangunan Ekonomi dan Pemerataan, Beberapa Pendekatan Alternatif. LP3ES : Jakarta.

Asian Development Bank. 2010. Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank : Mandaluyong City, Philippines.

Birdsall, Nancy. 2007. Reflections on the Macro Foundations of the Middle Class in theDeveloping World. Center for Global Development Working Paper 130, Washington DC.

-----------------. 2010. The (Indispensable) Middle Class in Developing Countries; or, The Rich and the Rest, Not the Poor and the Rest. Center for Global Development Working Paper 207, Washington DC.

Habito, Cielito F. 2009. Patterns of Inclusive Growth in Developing Asia:Insights from an Enhanced Growth-Poverty Elasticity Analysis. Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) working paper series No. 145, Tokyo.

Ianchovichina, Elena dan Sussana Lundstrom. 2009. Inclusive Growth Analytics Framework and Application. Policy Research Working Paper 4851, The World Bank Economic Policy and Debt DepartmentEconomic Policy Division.

Kakwani, N. dan H. Son. 2008. Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate. Review of Income and Wealth 54(4): 643–655.

Kharas, Homi. 2010. The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre, Working Paper No. 285.

Klasen, Stephen. 2010. Measuring and Monitoring Inclusive Growth: Multiple Definitions, Open Questions, and Some Constructive Proposals. ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series.

Mankiw, N.G. 2003. Teori Makroekonomi (edisi kelima), Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta.

McDowell, D. R dan Joyce E. 1995. Poverty Among Southern Workers: Metro and NonMetro Differentials. Journal Agricultural Economic, 77: 796- 802.

Min Tang. 2008. Inclusive Growth and the New Phase of Poverty Reduction in the People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Review, vol. 25, nos. 1 and 2, pp. 81−99.

Őzbudun, Ergun. 2005. The Role of the Middle Class in the Emergence and Consolidation of a Democratic Civil Society. Ankara Law Review Vol.2 No.2 (Winter 2005), pp.95107.

Rusastra, I Wayan. 2011. Reorientasi Paradigma dan Strategi Pengentasan Kemiskinan Dalam Mengatasi Dampak Krisis Ekonomi Global. Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian 4(2) : 87-102. Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian: Bogor.

Rusastra, I W. and Erwidodo. 1998. Growth, equity and environmental aspect of agricultural development in Indonesia. Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi 6(1): 32-41.

Ravallion, Martin. 2010. The Developing World’s Bulging (but Vulnerable) Middle Class. World Development Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 445–454.

Suryanarayana, M.H. 2008. Inclusive Growth: What is so exclusive about it?. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai.

Todaro, Michael. 2000. Pembangunan Ekonomi di Dunia Ketiga, edisi kesembilan terjemahan Munandar, Haris. Bumi Aksara : Jakarta.

Published
2018-02-04
How to Cite
Dyah Hapsari, S. A., Hutagaol, M. P., & Asmara, A. (2018). PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF : FENOMENA PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF DI KAWASAN INDONESIA BAGIAN BARAT DAN INDONESIA BAGIAN TIMUR. JURNAL EKONOMI DAN KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN, 2(2), 85-112. https://doi.org/10.29244/jekp.2.2.85-112

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>