Welfare Assessment of Maleo Chicks in Hungayono Sanctuary, Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, Gorontalo

F. R. Karim, B. Masy’ud, J. B. Hernowo


The decline in the Maleo population due to the decrease in suitable nesting sites caused the need for Maleo conservation activities such as protecting Maleo’s nesting site and their eggs. This study aims to analyze aspects of Maleo chicks captive management and assess Maleo chicks welfare levels in Hungayono Sanctuary. The method used is direct observation, interviews, and literature studies. Data analysis was carried out by describing the welfare assessment. The results showed that welfare management in Hungayono includes the management of cages, feed, and health. Management activities for the aspects of cages, feed, and overall health are still lacking. This is because several important aspects had not been fulfilled in management, such as the quantity and quality of the cages, feed and water given, also medical personnel and facilities. Maleo chick’s welfare level in Hungayono had a value of 49.73, which was categorized as low. The aspect of freedom from pain, injury, and disease had the lowest score, which was 1.92. In conclusion, the overall management of maleo chick's in Hungayono was still lacking and needed to be improved. The welfare level of Maleo chick’s was low, with freedom from pain, injury, and disease having the lowest score. Hungayono managers need to add medical personnel and increase the quality and quantity of their medical facilities to improve the aspects of freedom from pain, injury, and disease.


Bashari, H., M. W. Lela, M. Kobandaha, D. Rahmanita, & H. Teguh. 2020. Prosedur Tata kelola Lokasi Peneluran Maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone. Balai Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone- EPASS Project Bogani Nani Wartabone, Kotamobagu (ID).
Bashari, H., D. Rahmanita, & I. Hunowu. 2021. Ekologi dan Teknik Survei Populasi Maleo Senkawor Macrocephalon maleo di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone. Balai Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone, Kotamobagu (ID).
Carvalho, T. S. G., C. E. P. Saad, R. R. Alvarenga, W. M. Ferreira, V. D. L. Assis, V. M. Pereira, J. D. Scalon, J. P. Silva, & M. G. Zangeronimo. 2017. Use of collard green stalks as environmental enrichment for cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) kept in captivity. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 69:718-724. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4162-8988
[DitJen PHKA] Direktorat Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. 2011a. Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam (PHKA) No. P.6/IV-SET/2011 tentang Pedoman Penilaian Lembaga Konservasi. Direktorat Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Jakarta.
[DitJen PHKA] Direktorat Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam. 2011b. Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam (PHKA) No. P.9/IV-SET/2011 tentang Pedoman Etika dan Kesejahteraan Satwa di Lembaga Konservasi. Direktorat Jenderal Pelestarian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Jakarta.
Fidgett, A. L. & L. Gardner. 2014. Advancing avian nutrition through best feeding practice. Int. Zoo Yearb. 48:116-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/izy.12057
Froese, G. Z. & A. H. Mustari. 2019. Assessments of Maleo Macrocephalon maleo nesting grounds in South-east Sulawesi reveal severely threatened populations. Bird Conserv. Int. 29:497-502. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270918000333
Greggor, A. L., G. A. Vicino, R. R. Swaisgood, A. Fidgett, D. Brenner, M. E. Kinney, S. Farabaugh, B. Masuda, & N. Lamberski. 2018. Animal welfare in conservation breeding: Applications and challenges. Front. Vet. Sci. 5:323. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00323
Indrawan, M., N. Wahid, M. Argeloo, S. Mile-Doucet, J. Tasirin, L. P. Koh, M. Summers, & P. J. McGowan. 2012. All politics is local: the case of Macrocephalon maleo conservation on Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 21:3735-3744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0397-9
Mellor, E. L., K. H. K. McDonald, M. T. Mendl, I. C. Cuthill, Y. R. van Zeeland, & G. J. Mason. 2021. Nature calls: Intelligence and natural foraging style predict poor welfare in captive parrots. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science 288:20211952. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.1952
Peng, S. & D. M. Broom. 2021. The sustainability of keeping birds as pets: Should any be kept?. Animals 11:582. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020582
Peron, F. & C. Grosset. 2014. The diet of adult psittacids: Veterinarian and ethological approaches. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 98:403-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12103
Polverino, G., A. Manciocco, A. Vitale, & E. Alleva. 2015. Stereotypic behaviours in Melopsittacus undulates: Behavioural consequences of social and spatial limitations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 165:143-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.02.009
Prunier, A., L. Mouniew, P. Le Neindre, C. Mormede, V. Paulmier, P. Prunet, C. Terlouw, & R. Guatteo. 2012. Identifying and monitoring pain in farm animals: A review. Animals 7:998-1010. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112002406
Rose, P. E., S. M. Nash, & L. M. Riley. 2017. To pace or not to pace? A review of what abnormal repetitive behavior tells us about zoo animal management. J. Vet. Behav. 20:11-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2017.02.007
Sha, J. C. M., R. Ismail, D. Marlena, & J. L. Lee. 2016. Environmental complexity and feeding enrichment can mitigate effects of space constraints in captive callitrichids. Lab. Anim. 50:137–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/0023677215589258
Summers, M., R. Bunsung, & W. Manasai. 2021. “Someday we will all learn anew through hands that love us”: Protecting a key insular population of the Sulawesi fruit bat Acerodon celebensis. Conserv. Sci. Pract. 3:e559. https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.559
Tasirin, S. J., D. T. Iskandar, A. Laya, P. Kresno, N. Suling, V. T. Oga, R. Djano, A. Bawotong, A. Nur, M. Isfanddri, W. Abbas, N. A. Rihu, E. Poli, A. A. Lanusi, & M. Summers. 2021. Maleo Macrocephalon maleo population recovery at two Sulawesi nesting grounds after community engagement to prevent egg poaching. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 28:e01699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01699
Veasey, J. S. 2017. In pursuit of peak animal welfare; the need to prioritize the meaningful over the measurable. Zoo Biol. 36:413-425. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21390
Velarde, A. & A. Dalmau. 2012. Animal welfare assessment at slaughter in Europe: Moving from inputs to outputs. Meat Sci. 92:244-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.04.009
Wiantoro, S., R. P. Narakusumo, E. Sulistyadi, A. Hamidy, & F. Fahri. 2019. Effects of the total solar eclipse of March 9, 2015 on the animal behaviour. J. Trop. Biol. Conserv. 16:141-153. https://doi.org/10.51200/jtbc.v16i0.2035
Woods, J. M., A. Eyer, & L. J. Miller. 2022. Bird welfare in zoos and aquariums: General insights across industries. Journal Zoological Botanical Gardens 2022:198-222. https://doi.org/10.3390/jzbg3020017


F. R. Karim
firarizka08@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
B. Masy’ud
J. B. Hernowo
KarimF. R., Masy’udB., & HernowoJ. B. (2023). Welfare Assessment of Maleo Chicks in Hungayono Sanctuary, Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, Gorontalo. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 46(1), 20-26. https://doi.org/10.5398/tasj.2023.46.1.20

Article Details