The present study aimed to investigate factors influencing the prolonged birth interval in swine, defined as a birth interval longer than 30 minutes. In total, 3380 piglets born from 239 Landrace x Yorkshire sows from 5 farms in the North of Vietnam were included in this study. The dependent variable was the prolonged birth interval, and independent variables included parity, gestation length, litter size, relative birth order, crown-rump length, birth weight, body-mass index, ponderal index, piglet’s gender, dead-born piglet, and oxytocin use. Important factors for the prolonged birth interval were determined by using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. The incidence of the prolonged birth interval was 14.5%. Crown-rump length (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.06-1.14), birth weight (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.09), and dead-born piglet (OR=1.98-2.08, 95% CI=1.38-2.97) were positively associated with the prolonged birth interval, while litter size (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.96-0.94) negatively correlated with the prolonged birth interval. The incidence of prolonged birth interval decreased with an increase in relative birth order, bottoming at relative birth order of 40-80, and then increased to the end of parturition. The last piglets had the highest risk of experiencing prolonged birth intervals. This study indicated that prolonged birth interval in swine was common; therefore, careful farrowing supervision should be practiced to reduce stress in sows and piglets.
Baxter, E. M., S. Jarvis, L. Sherwood, S. K. Robson, E. Ormandy, M. Farish, K. M. Smurthwaite, R. Roehe, A. B. Lawrence, & S. A. Edwards. 2009. Indicators of piglet survival in an outdoor farrowing system. Livest. Sci. 124:266-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.02.008
Bjorkman, S., C. Oliviero, P. J. Rajala-Schultz, N. M. Soede, & O. A. Peltoniemi. 2017. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows. Theriogenology 92:36-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.01.003
Canario, L., J. Gruand, J. C. Caritez, T. Tribout, J. L. Foulley, & J. P. Bidanel. 2003. Between and within breed variation of farrowing length and its relationships with litter size and peri-partum mortality in pigs. 54th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Roma, Italy, August 31st-September 3rd.
Canario, L., N. Roy, J. Gruand, & J. P. Bidanel. 2006. Genetic variation of farrowing kinetics traits and their relationships with litter size and perinatal mortality in French Large White sows. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1053-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8451053x
Cozler, Y. L., C. Guyomarc’h, X. Pichodo, P. Y. Quinio, & H. Pellois. 2002. Factors associated with stillborn and mummified piglets in high-prolific sows. Animal Research. 51:261-268. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002017
Herpin, P., J. Le Dividich, J. C. Hulin, M. Fillaut, F. De Marco, & R. Bertin. 1996. Effects of the level of asphyxia during delivery on viability at birth and early postnatal vitality of newborn pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2067-75. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7492067x
Langendijk, P., M. Fleuren, & T. A. van Kempen. 2018. Birth Interval or Duration of Parturition: Which is Relevant to Risk of Stillbirth and Intervention? In the Proceedings of the Book of Abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science 2018, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 27–31 August 2018.
Langendijk, P. & K. Plush. 2019. Parturition and its relationship with stillbirths and asphyxiated piglets. Animals 9:885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110885
Mota-Rojas, D., A. M. Rosales, M. E. Trujillo, H. Orozco, R. Ramírez, & M. Alonso-Spilsbury. 2005. The effects of vetrabutin chlorhydrate and oxytocin on stillbirth rate and asphyxia in swine. Theriogenology 64:1889-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.12.018
Lawrence, A., J. Petherick, K. McLean, L. Deans, J. Chirnside, A. Vaughan, C. Gilbert, M. Forsling, & J. A. Russell. 1995. The effects of chronic environmental stress on parturition and on oxytocin and vasopressin secretion in the pig. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 38:251-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(94)01361-O
Mota-Rojas, D., D. Villanueva-Garcia, E. Y. Velazquez-Armenta, A. A. Nava-Ocampo, R. Ramirez-Necoechea, M. Alonso-Spilsbury, & M. E. Trujillo. 2007. Influence of time at which oxytocin is administered during labor on uterine activity and perinatal death in pigs. Biol. Res. 40:55-63. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-97602007000100006
Mota-Rojas, D., R. Fierro, P. Roldan-Santiago, H. Orozco-Gregorio, M. González-Lozano, H. Bonilla, R. Martínez-Rodríguez, R. García-Herrera, P. Mora-Medina, S. Flores-Peinado, M. Sánchez M, & R. Ramírez-Necoechea. 2014. Outcomes of gestation length in relation to farrowing performance in sows and daily weight gain and metabolic profiles in piglets. Anim. Prod. Sci. 55:93-100. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13175
Motsi, P., C. Sakuhuni, T. Halimani, E. Bhebhe, P. Ndiweni, & M. Chimonyo. 2006. Influence of parity, birth order, litter size and birth weight on duration of farrowing and birth intervals in commercial exotic sows in Zimbabwe. Anim.Sci. 82:569-574. https://doi.org/10.1079/ASC200664
Nam, N. H. & P. Sukon. 2020a. Risk factors for stillbirth in swine farm in Vietnam. World’s Veterinary Journal 10:74-79. https://doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.wvj10
Nam, N. H. & P. Sukon. 2020b. Risk factors associated with stillbirth of piglets born from oxytocin-assisted parturitions. Vet. World. 13:2172–2177. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.2172-2177
Nam, N. H. & P. Sukon. 2020c. Associated factors for farrowing duration in sows with natural parturition in intensive condition. World’s Veterinary Journal 10:320-324. https://doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.wvj41
Oliviero, C., M. Heinonen, A. Valros, & O. Peltoniemi. 2010. Environmental and sow-related factors affecting the duration of farrowing. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 119:85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2009.12.009
Pedersen, L. J., E. Jørgensen, T. Heiskanen, & B. I. Damm. 2006 Early piglet mortality in loose-housed sows related to sow and piglet behaviour and to the progress of parturition. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 96:215-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2005.06.016
Plush, K., A. Weaver, L. Staveley, & W. van Wettere. 2018. Maternal magnesium sulfate supplementation in a pre-farrow diet improves factors important for piglet viability. Animals 8:185. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8100185
Rootwelt, V., O. Reksen, W. Farstad, & T. Framstad. 2013. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2647-56. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5531
Taverne, M. A. & G. C. van der Weijden. 2008. Parturition in domestic animals: targets for future research. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43:36-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2008.01219.x
Yang, K.Y., L. H. Jeon, K. S. Kwon, H. C. Choi, J. B. Kim, & J. Y. Lee. 2019. Effect of different parities on reproductive performance, birth intervals, and tail behavior in sows. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 61:147-153. https://doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.3.147
Vallet, J. L., J. R. Miles, T. M. Brown-Brandl, & J. A. Nienaber. 2010. Proportion of the litter farrowed, litter size, and progesterone and estradiol effects on piglet birth intervals and stillbirths. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 119:68-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2009.11.004
van Rens, B. T. & T. van der Lende. 2004. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits. Theriogenology 62:331-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2003.10.008
van Dijk, A. J., B. T. van Rens, T. van der Lende, & M. A. Taverne. 2005. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings. Theriogenology 64:1573-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.03.017
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.