Growth and Biomass Production of Moringa Cultivated in Semiarid Region as Responses to Row Spacing and Cuts

  • R. S. Santos Federal University of Vale do São Francisco
  • J. V. Emerenciano Neto Federal University of Vale do São Francisco http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3060-9696
  • B. R. S. Bonfim Federal University of Vale do São Francisco
  • G. S. Difante Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
  • J. D. V. Bezerra Federal University of Vale do São Francisco
  • F. N. Lista Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
  • A. L. C. Gurgel Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
  • M. G. S. Bezerra Federal University of the Semi-Arid Region
Keywords: protein-bank, cultivation density, dry matter, Moringa oleifera L.

Abstract

The management of the moringa to produce biomass, as it is for other vegetal species, must consider some aspects that foster productivity. Among these aspects, cultivation density is a crucial element. This research aimed to assess the effects of spacing and cuts on the growth of the moringa. The treatments consisted of four spacings: 0.5 x 1.0 m; 0.83 x 1.0 m; 1.25 x 1.0 m; and 1.66 x 1.0 m. The experimental design was a randomized-block design with five repetitions. The standardization cut of the plants was performed at a one-meter height from the ground, fifty days after the seedlings transplantation. The assessments were performed every sixty days, totaling six cuts. Spacing impacted the growth and biomass production but did not affect the height of the plants. The stem diameter, branch number, and the plant’s mass increased at increasing the spacing. On the other side, the total mass and the masses of the stem, the leaflet, and the petiole per hectare decreased at increasing the spacing. Spacing did not affect the ratio between leaf/stem and leaflet/petiole. Plant growth and dry matter production were highest after the first two cuts and decreased significantly from the third cut on. The spacing of 0.5 x 1.0 m should be used for planting Moringa oleifera Lam. because this configuration, even reducing the gain per plant, increased the production of dry matter per unit area.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adegun, M. K., & O. J. Ayodele. 2015. Growth and yield of Moringa oleifera as influenced by spacing and organic manures in South-Western Nigeria. Int. J. Agron. Agric. Res. 6:30-37.

Bakke, I. A., J. S. Souto, P. C. Souto, & O. A. Bakke. 2010. Growth and forage value of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) under different organic fertilization and cut intervals. Eng. Ambiental. 7:133-144.

Basra, S. M. A., W. Nouman, H. Rehman, M. Usman, & Z. H. Nazli. 2015. Biomass production and nutritional composition of Moringa oleifera under different cutting frequencies and planting spacings. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 17:1055-1060. https://doi.org/10.17957/IJAB/15.0076

Castro Filho, E. S., E. N. Muniz, J. H. A. Rangel, G. R. A. Santos, J. A. Santana Neto, & H. R. Araujo. 2016. Dry matter yield and bromatological composition of gliricidia in different crop densities. Ciênc. Rural. 46:1038-1043. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20150782

Catunda, K. L. M., E. M. Aguiar, V. Lima Júnior, M. M. T. Rego, & A. H. N. Rangel. 2017. Moringa oleifera: An alternative forage of multiple uses for the Brazilian semiarid. Científica. 45:437-442. https://doi.org/10.15361/1984-5529.2017v45n4p437-442

EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos. 2006. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de solos. 2nd ed. EMBRAPA, Rio de Janeiro.

Falowo A. B., F. E. Mukumbo, E. M. Idamokoro, J. M. Lorenzo, A. J. Afolayan, & V. Muchenje. 2018. Multi-functional application of Moringa oleifera Lam. in nutrition and animal food products: A review. Food Res. Int. 106:317-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.079

Ferreira, D. F. 2011. Sisvar: a computer statistical analysis system. Ciênc. Agrotec. 35:1039-1042. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542011000600001

Goss, M. 2012. A study of the initial establishment of multi-purpose moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) at various plant densities, their effect on biomass accumulation and leaf yield when grown as vegetable. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 6:125-129. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS11.259

Kumalasari, N. R., G. P. Wicaksono, & L. Abdullah. 2017. Plant growth pattern, forage yield, and quality of Indigofera zollingeriana influenced by row spacing. Med. Pet. 40:14-19. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2017.40.1.14

Leone, A., A. Spada, A. Battezzati, A. Schiraldi, J. Aristil, & S. Bertoli. 2016. Moringa oleifera seeds and oil: Characteristics and uses for human health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17:2141. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122141

Lok, S. & Y. Suárez. 2014. Effect of fertilizers on the biomass production of Moringa oleifera and on some soil indicators during the establishment. Cuban J. Agric. Sci. 48:399-403.

Mabapa, M. P., K. K. Ayisi, & I. K.Mariga. 2017. Effect of planting density and harvest interval on the leaf yield and quality of moringa (Moringa oleifera) under diverse agroecological conditions of Northern South Africa. Int. J. Agron. 2017:e2941432. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2941432

Mendieta-Araica, B., E. Spörndly, N. Reyes-Sánchez, F. Salmerón-Miranda, & M. Halling. 2013. Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different planting densities and levels of nitrogen fertilization. Agric. Syst. 87:81-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-012-9525-5

Moyo, B., S. Oyedemi, P. J. Masika, & V. Muchenje. 2012. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves or sunflower seed cake. Meat Sci. 91:441-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.02.029

Nouman, W., S. M. A. Basra, M. T. Siddiqui, A. Yasmeen, T. Gull, & M. A. C. Alcayde. 2014. Potential of Moringa oleifera L. as livestock fodder crop: A review. Turk. J. Agric. For. 38:1-14. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1211-66

Olson, M. E., & J. W. Fahey. 2011. Moringa oleifera: A multipurpose tree for the dry tropics. Revista Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82:1071-1082. https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2011.4.678

Padilla, C., N. Valenciaga, G. Crespo, D. González, & I. Rodríguez. 2017. Requerimientos agronómicos de Moringa oleifera (Lam.) en sistemas ganaderos. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 29:e218.

Rodrigues, L. A., T. A. Muniz, S. S. Samarão, & A. E. Cyrino. 2016. Quality of Moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings cultivated in substrates with green coconut fiber and organic compounds. Rev. Ceres. 63:545-552. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-737X201663040016

Sánchez, N. R., S. Ledin, & I. Ledin. 2006. Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different management regimes in Nicaragua. Agrofor. Syst. 66:231-242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-005-8847-y

Santos, W. R., D. B. Matos, B. M. Oliveira, T. M. Santana, M. M. Santana, & G. F. Silva. 2011. Estudo do tratamento e clarificação de água com torta de sementes de Moringa oleifera Lam. Ver. Bras. Prod. Agroind. 13:295-299. https://doi.org/10.15871/1517-8595/rbpa.v13n3p295-299

Silva, D. J., & A. C. Queiroz. 2002. Análise de alimentos: métodos químicos e biológicos. 3rd ed. Viçosa, UFV.

Teixeira, V. I., J. C. B. Dubeux Junior, M. V. F. Santos, M. A. Lira Junior, M. A. Lira, & H. M. S. Silva. 2010. Agronomic and bromatologic aspects of forage legumes from Brazilian NE. Arch. Zootec. 59:245-254. https://doi.org/10.4321/S0004-05922010000200010

Valdez-Solana, M. A., V. Y. Mejía-García, A. Téllez-Valencia, G. García-Arenas, J. SalasPacheco, J. J. Alba-Romero, & E. Sierra-Campos. 2015. Nutritional content and elemental and phytochemical analyses of Moringa oleifera grown in Mexico. J. Chem. 2015:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/860381

Zheng, Y., Y. Zhang, & J. Wu. 2016. Yield and quality of Moringa oleifera under different planting densities and cutting heights in Southwest China. Ind. Crop. Prod. 91:88-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.06.032

Published
2021-06-01
How to Cite
Santos, R. S., Emerenciano Neto, J. V., Bonfim, B. R. S., Difante, G. S., Bezerra, J. D. V., Lista, F. N., Gurgel, A. L. C., & Bezerra, M. G. S. (2021). Growth and Biomass Production of Moringa Cultivated in Semiarid Region as Responses to Row Spacing and Cuts. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 44(2), 183-187. https://doi.org/10.5398/tasj.2021.44.2.183