The present experiment was conducted to estimate the metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) requirements of female Arabic chickens under a semi-scavenging system from starter to first egg-laying age. Two hundred and forty-five day-old chicks were allotted into 12 sheltered pens with 20 chicks each. They were offered either control or choice diet and replicated six times. The control group was offered a control diet based on the Hy-line Brown Nutrient Requirements Standard, whereas the choice group was offered a control diet (starter period: 2910 kcal of ME/kg and 19.7% of CP; grower period: 2854 kcal of ME/kg and 17.5% of CP; developer period: 2754 kcal of ME/kg and 16.0% of CP; pre-laying period: 2776 kcal of ME/kg and 16.5% of CP; and laying period: 2814 kcal of ME/kg and 18.4% of CP) together with four other diets (high energy-high protein [3101 kcal of ME/kg and 23.0% of CP], high energy-low protein [3133 kcal of ME/kg and 14.3% of CP, low energy-high protein [2638 kcal of ME/kg and 23.4% of CP], and low energy-low protein [2677 kcal of ME/kg and 14.6% of CP]). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS. Results showed that feed intake was significantly lower in choice dietary treatments in all periods, except in the starter period. ME and CP intakes were similar (p>0.05) in all periods. However, ME and CP concentrations in the diet consumed were higher (p<0.05) in choice dietary treatment in all periods, except CP concentration in the starter period. BWG started to be higher (p<0.05) in choice dietary treatment during the developer and pre-laying period. The onset of laying was two days early in choice-fed birds. It can be concluded that free choice feeding on a diet varying in energy and protein had a beneficial effect on the growth rate of female Arabic hens by consuming more a high energy-high protein and a high energy-low protein diet. ME and CP requirements of Arabic hens for starter period were 3026 kcal of ME/kg and 18.8%, for grower period were 3081 kcal of ME/kg and 18.4%, for developer period were 3091 kcal of ME/kg and 18.5%, and for pre-laying period were 3072 kcal of ME/kg and 18.8% to faster the onset of laying.
Daghir, N. J. 2008. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry at High Temperatures.Pages 133-316 in Poultry Production in Hot Climates. Daghir, N.J., ed. 2nd ed. CAB International, Cromwell Press, Trowbridge. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845932589.0000
Director General of Livestock and Animal Health. 2019. Livestock and Animal Health Statistics. Director General of Livestock and Animal Health Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta.
Fanatico, A. C., V. B. Brewer, C. M. Owens-Hanning, D. J. Donoghue, & A. M. Donoghue. 2013. Free-choice feeding of free-range meat chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 22:750-758 . https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00687
Fanatico, A. C., C. M. Owens-Hanning, V. B. Gunsaulis, & A. M. Donoghue. 2016. Choice feeding of protein concentrate and grain to organic meat chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 25:156-164. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfv076
Hartawan, R., & N. L. P. I. Dharmayanti. 2016. The Meq Gene Molecular Profile of Marek’s Disease Virus Serotype 1 From Kampung and Arabic Chicken Farms in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. HAYATI J. Biosci. 23:160-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hjb.2016.12.004
He, S. P., M. A. Arowolo, R. F. Medrano, S. Li, Q. F. Yu, J. Y. Chen, & J. H. He. 2018. Impact of heat stress and nutritional interventions on poultry production. Worlds. Poult. Sci. J. 74:647-664. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933918000727
HyLine. 2011. Hy-line Brown Commercial Management Guide. Hy-Line, Australia.
Khoddami, A., P. V. Chrystal, P. H. Selle, & S. Y. Liu. 2018. Dietary starch to lipid ratios influence growth performance, nutrient utilisation and carcass traits in broiler chickens offered diets with different energy densities (C Óvilo, Ed.). PLoS One. 13:e0205272. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205272
Kristina Dewi, G. A. M., I. G. Mahardika, I. K. Sumadi, & I. M. Suasta. 2015. Effect of dietary energy and protein level on growth performance of native chickens at the starter phase. Khon Kaen Agr. J. 43:206-210.
Littell, R. C., P. R. Henry, & C. B. Ammerman. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1216. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7641216x
Liu, S. Y., P. H. Selle, D. Raubenheimer, D. J. Cadogan, S. J. Simpson, & A. J. Cowieson. 2016. An assessment of the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens by nutritional geometry. Br. J. Nutr. 116:2129-2138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004190
Liu, S. Y., P. H. Selle, D. Raubenheimer, R. M. Gous, P. V. Chrystal, D. J. Cadogan, S. J. Simpson, & A. J. Cowieson. 2017. Growth performance, nutrient utilisation and carcass composition respond to dietary protein concentrations in broiler chickens but responses are modified by dietary lipid levels. Br. J. Nutr. 118:250-262. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517002070
Naseem, S., & A. J. King. 2020. Effect of Lactobacilli on production and selected compounds in blood, the liver, and manure of laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 29:339-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japr.2019.11.008
Perween, S., K. Kumar, Chandramoni, S. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. Kumar, & A. Dey. 2016. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic. Vet. World. 9:893-899. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.893-899
Quinteiro-Filho, W. M., A. Ribeiro, V. Ferraz-de-Paula, M. L. Pinheiro, M. Sakai, L. R. M. Sá, A. J. P. Ferreira, & J. Palermo-Neto. 2010. Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 89:1905-1914. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-00812
Raphulu, T., & C. J. van Rensburg. 2018. Dietary protein and energy requirements of Venda village chickens. J. Agric. Rural Dev. Trop. Subtrop. 119:95-104.
Sari, K. A., B. Sukamto, & B. Dwiloka. 2014. Protein efficiency of broiler chickens fed with diets containing kayambang leaves meal. Agripet 14:76-83. https://doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v14i2.1867
Sugiharto, S., T. Yudiarti, I. Isroli, E. Widiastuti, & E. Kusumanti. 2017. Dietary supplementation of probiotics in poultry exposed to heat stress - A review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 17:591-604. https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2016-0062
Syafwan, S., R. P. Kwakkel, & M. W. A. Verstegen. 2011. Heat stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens. Worlds. Poult. Sci. J. 67:653-674. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933911000742
Syafwan, S., G. J. D. Wermink, R. P. Kwakkel, & M. W. A. Verstegen. 2012. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance. Poult. Sci. 91:537-549. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01559
Walter, W. S., A. M. George, A. C. Elizabeth, & D. W. Russel. 2018. SAS for Mixed Models: Introduction and Basic Applications. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.
Wang, W. C., F. F. Yan, J. Y. Hu, O. A. Amen, & H. W. Cheng. 2018. Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic reduces heat stress-related behaviors and inflammatory response in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Sci. 96:1654-1666. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky092
Zhang, Z. Y., G. Q. Jia, J. J. Zuo, Y. Zhang, J. Lei, L. Ren, & D. Y. Feng. 2012. Effects of constant and cyclic heat stress on muscle metabolism and meat quality of broiler breast fillet and thigh meat. Poult. Sci. 91:2931-2937. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02255
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.