Milk Composition and Milk Quality of Saanen Crossbreed Goats Supplemented by Mineral Blocks
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of urea molasses multi-nutrient mineral block (UMMB) and medicated urea molasses multi-nutrient mineral block (MUMB) supplemented group on milk composition and milk quality of Saanen lactating does. A 90-day feed trial was conducted at a dairy goat farm in Felda Kemahang, Tanah Merah, Kelantan, Malaysia. Twenty four (24) Saanen lactating does (average milk yield < 1 L/d) were randomly assigned to four groups with six (6) goats each. Animals fed a basal diet, which consisted of 3 kg Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 1 kg commercial goat pellet as a control group. The experimental groups received equal amounts of basal diet with supplementation of UMMB and MUMB which were formulated using local agriculture by-products; and commercial mineral block (CMB), respectively. Milk samples were collected every two weeks for the analyses of milk composition, i.e., protein, fat, lactose, total solids, density, freezing point, pH, and temperature using EKOmilk analyzer. All results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test by SPSS software version 23. It was found that milk yield in the group supplemented with UMMB (1.52 L/d) was significantly higher (p<0.05), followed by MUMB (1.31 L/d), CMB (0.96 L/d), and control (0.78 L/d). Besides, the different group did not cause significant effect (p>0.05) on milk composition and total bacteria count. Meanwhile, iron milk content in goat supplemented with MUMB (1.46 mg/g) was significantly lowered (p<0.05), approaching the optimum value (0.36-0.75) compared to the control (4.08 mg/kg). In conclusion, UMMB and MUMB supplements had improved milk quality in terms of iron content and fatty acid concentration, which potentially can be utilized as feed supplements to increase the productivity of lactating goats.
Chalder, P. C. 2015. Functional roles of fatty acids and their effects on human health. JPEN 20: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0148607115595980
Chilliard, Y. & A. Ferlay. 2004. Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 44: 467-492. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2004052
Cupáková, Š., M. Pospíšilová, R. Karpíšková, B. Janštová, & L. Vorlová. 2012. Microbiological quality and safety of goat’s milk from one farm. Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendel. Brun. LX(6): 33-38. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201260060033
Currò, S., C. L. Manuelian, M. De Marchi, P. De Palo, S. Claps, A. Maggiolino, & G. Neglia. 2019. Autochthonous dairy goat breeds showed better milk quality than Saanen under the same environmental conditions. Arch. Anim. Breed. 62: 83-89. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-62-83-2019
D’Amico, D. J. & C. W. Donnelly. 2010. Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: Effect of farm characteristics and practices. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 134-147. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2426
Dieffenbacher, A. & W. D. Pocklinton. 1987. Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives (7th ed). Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.
Delavenne, E., J. Mounier, K. Asmani, J. L. Jany, G. Barbier, & G. Le Blay. 2011. Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 151: 247-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.08.029
Department of Statistics, M. 2019. Quarterly Gross Domestic Product. Department of Statistics, Malaysia., 70.
Elgersma, A. 2015. Grazing increases the unsaturated fatty acid concentration of milk from grass-fed cows: A review of the contributing factors, challenges and future perspectives. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 117: 1345-1369. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400469
Gómez-Cortés, P., A.Cívico, M. A. De La Fuente, N. Núñez Sánchez, F. Peña Blanco, & A. L. Martinez Marin. 2018. Effects of dietary concentrate composition and linseed oil supplementation on the milk fatty acid profile of goats. Animal 12: 2310-2317. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118000381
Idamokoro, E. M., V. Muchenje, & P. J. Masika. 2017. Yield and milk composition at different stages of lactation from a small herd of Nguni, Boer, and non-descript goats raised in an extensive production system. Sustainability 9: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061000
Idowu, T.S. & O.O. Adewumi. 2017. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting yield and milk composition in goats. J Adv. Dairy Res. 05: 2-5. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-888X.1000175
Kanani, J., S. D. Lukefahr, & R. L. Stanko. 2006. Evaluation of tropical forage legumes Medicago sativa, Dolichos lablab, Leucaena leucocephala and Desmanthus bicornutus) for growing goats. Small Rumin. Res. 65: 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.04.028
Keles, G., F. Yildiz-Akgul, & V. Kocaman. 2017. Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 30: 363-369. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0482
Mengistu, G. & W. Hassen. 2017. Review on : supplementary feeding of urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks to ruminant animals for improving productivity. IJVSAH 2: 43-49.
Mengistu, G. & W. Hassen. 2018. Supplementary feeding of urea molasses multi- nutrient blocks to ruminant animals for improving productivity. Acad. Res. J. Agri. Sci. Res. 6: 52-61.
Min, B. R., S. P.Hart, T. Sahlu, & L. D. Satter. 2005. The effect of diets on milk production and composition on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 2604-2615. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72937-4
Mira, P., M. Wan Zahari, N. D. Rusli, & K. Mat. 2018. Effects of non-medicated and medicated urea molasses multinutrient blocks on dry matter intake, growth performance, body condition score and feed conversion ratio of Saanen lactating does fed conventional diets. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 41: 729-740.
Mubi, A.A., I.D. Mohammed, & A. Kibon. 2013. Effects of multinutrient blocks supplementation on the performance of Yankasa sheep fed with basal diet of rice straw in the dry season of Guinea Savanna Region of Nigeria. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 5: 172-178.
Muralidharan, J., A. K. Thiruvenkadan, & V. Ramesh Saravanakumar. 2016. Effect of concentrate and urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) supplementation on the growth and feed consumption of Mecheri lambs under intensive rearing. Indian J. Anim. Res. 50: 382-386. https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.9421
Nordin, Y., S. Y. Kwan, W. S. Chang, Y. Y. Loo, C. W. Tan, S. N. Mohd Fadzil, & R. Son. 2018. Evaluation of bacteriological quality of locally produced raw and pasteurised milk in Selangor, Malaysia. Food Res. 3: 208-212. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.3(3).235
Novotná, K., M. Ptáček, M. Fantová, L. Nohejlová, L. Stádník, M. Okrouhlá, & Z. Peták. 2019. Impact of concentrate level and stage of lactation on fatty acid composition in goat milk. Sci. Agric. Bohem. 50: 171-175. https://doi.org/10.2478/sab-2019-0023
Ramchurn, R. & A. Ruggoo. 2000. Digestibility and growth in the domestic rabbit using multi- nutrient blocks as a feed supplement. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 12: 15-25.
Sazila, N. A. S. N., F. A. Abdullah, N. A. M. Khadri, S. Sidek, F. A. Abdullah, K. Mat, M. A. Ayob, & M. M. Rahman. 2018. The Intention Level among Felda Youth to Re-Migrate from City for Livestock Entrepreneurship: A Preliminary Study. Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci. 8: 566-577. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i6/4258
Silva, L. S., J. V. F. L. Cavalcanti, A. L. R. Magalhães, K. R. Santoro, G. D. Gonçalves, L. P. V. Santana, & O. C. Almeida. 2020. Soybean oil modulates the fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland, improving nutritional quality of the goat milk. Small Rumin. Res. 183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2019.106041
Singh, A., S. Nayak, R. P. S. Baghel, A. Khare, & C. D. Malapure. 2018. Dietary manipulations to alter milk fat composition. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 6: 176-181.
Shahudin, M. S., A. A. A. Ghani, M. Zamri-Saad, A. B. Zuki, F. F. J. Abdullah, H. Wahid, & H. A. Hassim. 2018. The necessity of a herd health management programme for dairy goat farms in Malaysia. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 41: 1-18.
Skapetas B. & V. Bampidis. 2016. Goat production in the world: present situation and trends. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 28: 200.
Strzałkowska N., A. Jóźwik, E. Bagnicka, J. Krzyżewski, K.Horbańczuk, B. Pyzel, & J. O. Horbańczuk. 2009. Chemical composition, physical traits and fatty acid profile of goat milk as related to the stage of lactation. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 27: 311-320.
Suguna, M., B. Rejeev, & W. Nadiah. 2012. Microbiological quality evaluation of goat milk collected from small- scale dairy farms in Penang Island, Malaysia. Int. Food Res. J. 19: 1241-1245.
Sumarmono, J., M. Sulistyowati, & Soenarto. 2015. Fatty acids profiles of fresh milk, yogurt and concentrated yogurt from Peranakan Etawah goat milk. Procedia Food Sci. 3: 216-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2015.01.024
Tufarelli, V., M. Dario, & V. Laudadio. 2009. Forage to concentrate ratio in Jonica breed goats: Influence on lactation curve and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 124-128. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029908003841
Verraes, C., W. Claeys, S. Cardoen, G. Daube, L. De Zutter, H. Imberechts, & L. Herman. 2014. A review of the microbiological hazards of raw milk from animal species other than cows. Int. Dairy J. 39: 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.05.010
Zailan, M. Z. & H. Yaakub. 2018. Milk composition and fatty acids profile at different stages of lactation in Jamnapari crossbred goats. Malays. J. Anim. Sci. 21: 109–122.
Zamberlin S., N. Antunac, J. Havranek, & D. Samaržija. 2012. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products. Mljekarstvo 62:111-125.
Copyright (c) 2020 Tropical Animal Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.