The Interaction of NDF Level and Fiber Particle Size on Productivity and Fiber Digestion in Rabbit during the Fattening Period
This research was conducted to determine the interaction of NDF level and fiber particle size on the performance of production, digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber and fiber fraction, digestive tract, microbial profiles, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and total organic acid of rabbits during the fattening period. The experiment utilized 144 New Zealand white (NZW) crossbred rabbits aged 28 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized 3 x 3 factorial pattern, with 3 levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (F1= 33.60%, F2= 36.10%, and F3= 41.43%) and 3 sizes of fiber particles (P1= 1 mm, P2= 2 mm, and P3= 3 mm). Each treatment had 4 replications, and each replication had 4 animals. The combination treatment showed changes in feed intake with an average of 5.25 kg/head. The F2 treatment showed the best results in body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) with an average of 1.80 kg/head and 3.09, respectively. The F1 level showed the highest average of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli) population at 3.37 x 109 cfu/mL which inversely proportional to the average level of butyric acid percentage and total organic acids which were 12.92% and 386.23 mmol/L in rabbits during the post-weaning period. The conclusion of this study was that the inclusion of NDF and a balanced size of fiber feed in feed could lead to optimization of the fiber digestibility, digestive tract, total organic acid production, and butyric acid concentration which could suppress the growth of E. coli and improve the performance of rabbits during the fattening period.
AOAC. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Mayland, USA.
Blas, C. & J. Wiseman. 2010. Nutrition of The Rabbit. 2nd Edition. CU Madrid, Spain and Nottingham UK.
De Blas, J.C., S. Chamorro, J.G. Alonso, P.G. Rebollar, A.I.G.Ruiz, M.S.G. Conde, D. Menoyo, N. Nicodemus, C. Romero, & R. Carabano. 2012. Nutritional digestive disturbances in weaner rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 173: 102-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.016
Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia. 2017. Statistics on Animal Husbandry and Animal Health. http://ditjenpkh.pertanian.go.id/userfiles/File/Buku_Statistik_ 2017_ (ebook). pdf?time=1505127443012
Gidenne, T., V. Kerdiles, N. Jehl, P. Arveux, B. Eckenfelder, C. Briens, S. Montessuy, & G. Muraz. 2013. Protein replacement by digestible ﬁbre in the diet of growing rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 183: 142–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.03.013
Jang, Y.D., S.K. Jang, D.H. Kim, H.K. Oh, & Y.Y. Kim. 2014. Effects of dietary protein levels for gestating gilts on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition. Asian Australas. J. Anim Sci. 27: 83-92. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13369
Knudsen, C., S. Combes, C. Briens, G. Coutelet, J. Duperray, Salaun, A. Travel, D. Weissman, & T. Gidenne. 2014. Increasing the digestible energy intake under a restriction strategy improves the feed conversion ratio of the growing rabbit without negatively impacting the health status. Livest Sci. 169: 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.08.015
Marguenda, I., N. Nicodemus, S. Vadillo, L. Sevilla, M. Villarroel, C. Romeo, & R. Carabaño . 2012. Effect of dietary type and level of fiber on rabbit carcass yield and its microbiological characteristics. Livest. Sci. 145: 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.12.012
Martínez, V.B., P.E. Martínez, L. Rodenas,V.J. Moya, C. Cervera, J.J. Pascual, & E. Blas. 2013. Partial replacement of starch with acid detergent fibre and/or neutral detergent soluble fibre at two protein levels: effects on ileal apparent digestibility and caecal environment of growing rabbits. Livest. Sci. 154: 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.02.012
Morais, M. J., C. C. Sevilla, J E. E. C. Abes, & A. A. Angeles. 2018. Growth performance and ruminal metabolic variables of goats fed rain tree (Samanea saman). Trop. Anim. Sci. J. 41:22-28. https://doi.org/10.5398/tasj.2018.41.1.22
Sobri, M., K.G. Wiryawan, P.D.M.H. Karti, & W.T. Wibawan. 2019. Effect of fiber feed on rabbits during the postweaning period. Pak. J. Nutr. 18: 101-108. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.101.108
Steel, R. G. D. & J. H. Torrie. 1995. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. Alih Bahasa Sumantri, B. Prinsip dan Prosedur Statistika. Edisi 4 Penerbit PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.
Tazzoli, M., M. Birolo, E. Filiou, A. Zuffelato, & G. Xiccato 2013. Increasing dietary energy with starch and soluble fibre and reducing ADF at different protein levels for growing rabbits. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus. 78: 1-5.
Trocino, A., J. Garcia, R. Carabano, & G. Xiccato. 2013. A metaanalysis of the role of soluble ﬁbre in diets for growing rabbits. World Rabbit Science 21:1–15. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2013.1285
Trocino A., M. Fragkiadakis, & G. Xiccato. 2011. Effect ofthe increase of dietary starch and soluble ﬁbre on digestive efﬁciency and growth performance of meat rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 165: 265–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.03.008
Trocino, A., M. Fragkiadakis, G. Radaelli, & G. Xiccato. 2010. Effect of dietarysoluble ﬁbre level and protein source on growth, digestion, caecal activity and health of fattening rabbits. World Rabbit Science 18: 199–210. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2010.779
Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson, & B.A. Lewis. 1995. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and on-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583–3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Villamide, M.J., R. Carabano, L. Maertens, J. Pascual, T. Gidenne, L.F.E. Cunha & G. Xiccato. 2010. Prediction of the nutritional value of European compound feeds for rabbits by chemical components and in vitro analysis. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 150: 283-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2008.09.007
Volek, Z. & M. Marounek. 2011. Dried chicory root (Cichorium intybusL.) as anatural fructan source in rabbit diet: effects on growth performance, digestion and caecal and carcass traits. World Rabbit Science 19: 143–150. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2011.850
Zhu, Y.L., C.Y. Wang, X.P. Wang, B. Li, L.Z. Sun, & F.C. Li. 2013. Effects of dietary fiber and starch levels on the non-specific immune response of growing rabbits. Livest Sci. 155: 285–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.04.018
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.