Growth Performance, Haematological Parameters, Intestinal Microbiology, and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Two-Stage Fermented Cassava Pulp during Finishing Phase

S. Sugiharto, T. Yudiarti, I. Isroli


This study aimed to investigate the effect of two-stage fermented cassava pulp (FCP) on growth, blood parameters, intestinal microbiology and carcass characteristics of broilers. Two hundreds Lohmann broiler chicks were used from days 22 to 38 and allotted to CONT (maize-soybean-meal-based finisher diet), FCP-10 (finisher diet containing 10% FCP), FCP-15 (15% FCP) and FCP-20 (20% FCP). FCP was included into finisher diet at the expense of maize. On day 38, one bird per replicate was blood sampled and slaughtered. Ileal and caecal digesta and duodenal, jejunal and ileal segments were obtained for intestinal microbiology and villi height measurements. Breast muscle was obtained for meat colour determination. FCP-10 had a higher (p≤0.05) body weight gain than CONT. Feed intake was highest (p≤0.05) in FCP-15 and the lowest (p≤0.05) in CONT. Feed conversion ratio was lowest and highest in FCP-10 and FCP-15, respectively (p≤0.05). FCP-20 had a lower (p≤0.05) abdominal fat than CONT and FCP-10. CONT had lower (p≤0.05) serum total triglycerides than FCP-15 and FCP-20. Duodenal villi height for FCP-20 was higher (p≤0.05) than that for CONT and FCP-15. The ileal villi height for FCP-20 was lower (p≤0.05) than that for CONT and FCP-15. The wings relative weight was higher (p≤0.05) in FCP-20 than in FCP-10 and FCP-15. FCP-15 and FCP-20 had higher (p≤0.05) L* (lightness) values than CONT. In conclusion, feeding two-stage FCP up to 20% had no deleterious effect on growth, haematological parameters, intestinal microbiology and carcass characteristics. Feeding two-stage FCP at a level of 20% reduced the abdominal fat content and increased duodenal villi height of broilers.


AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis of the association of analytical chemists, Washington DC, USA.

Bolton, W. 1967. Poultry Nutrition. MAFF Bulletin No.174. HMSO, London.

Fouad, A. M. & H. K. El-Senousey. 2014. Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: A review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1057-1068.

Huu, H. L. & T. Khammeng. 2014. Effect of yeast fermented cassava pulp (FCP) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of post-weaning pigs. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 26:8.

Keller, U. & J. M. Miles. 1991. Growth hormone and lipids. Horm. Res. 36:36-40.

Khempaka, S., W. Molee, & M. Guillaume. 2009. Dried cassava pulp as an alternative feedstuff for broilers: Effect on growth performance, carcass traits, digestive organs, and nutrient digestibility. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 18:487-493.

Khempaka, S., R. Thongkratok, S. Okrathok, & W. Molee. 2014. An evaluation of cassava pulp feedstuff fermented with A. oryzae, on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass quality of broilers. J. Poult. Sci. 51:71-79.

Naji, S. A., I. F. B. Al-Zamili, Hasan, S. A. Jawad, & J. K. M. Al-Gharawi. 2016. The effects of fermented feed on broiler production and intestinal morphology. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci., 39:597-607.

Nie, C., W. Zhang, W. Ge, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, & J. Liu. 2015. Effects of fermented cottonseed meal on the growth performance, apparent digestibility, carcass traits, and meat composition in yellow-feathered broilers. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 39: 350-356.

Okrathok, S., P. Pasri, R. Thongkratok, W. Molee, & S. Khempaka. 2018. Effects of cassava pulp fermented with Aspergillus oryzae as a feed ingredient substitution in laying hen diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 27:188-197.

Qiao, M., D. L. Fletcher, D. P. Smith, & J. K. Northcutt. 2001. The effect of broiler breast meat color on pH, moisture, water-holding capacity, and emulsification capacity. Poult. Sci. 80:676-680.

Reyes, F. C. C., A. T. A. Aguirre, E. M. Agbisit Jr, F. E. Merca, G. L. Manulat, & A. A. Angeles. 2018. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed akasya [Samanea Saman (Jacq.) Merr.] pod meal. Trop. Anim. Sci. J. 41:46-52.

Shi, C., Y. Zhang, Z. Lu, & Y. Wang. 2017. Solid-state fermentation of corn-soybean meal mixed feed with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium for degrading antinutritional factors and enhancing nutritional value. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8:50.

SNI (Indonesian National Standard). 2006. Standard for broiler feed (SNI 01-3930-2006). National Standardization Agency of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Sugiharto, S., T. Yudiarti, I. Isroli, E. Widiastuti, & F. D. Putra. 2017a. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium charticola on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of broiler chicks. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 47:130-138.

Sugiharto, S., T. Yudiarti, I. Isroli, E. Widiastuti, & F. D. Putra. 2017b. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress. Arch. Anim. Breed. 60:347-356.

Sugiharto, S. & S. Ranjitkar. 2019. Recent advances in fermented feeds towards improved broiler chicken performance, gastrointestinal tract microecology and immune responses: A review. Anim. Nutr. 5:1-5.

Utomo, D.B. 2012. Indonesian maize production and trading for feed. International Maize Conference: ”Maize for Food, Feed and Fuel”. Indonesian Agency for Agriculture Research and Development (IAARD), Ministry of Agriculture and Gorontalo Provincial Government in Gorontalo, Sulawesi, Indonesia, 22-24 November 2012.

Villegas, P.1987. Avian virus diseases laboratory manual. College of Veterinary Medicine. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Weng, T. M., & M. T. Chen. 2011. Effect of two-step fermentation by Rhizopus oligosporus and Bacillus subtilis on protein of fermented soybean. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 17:393-400.

Wongputtisin, P., C. Khanongnuch, W. Kongbuntad, P. Niamsup, S. Lumyong, & P. K. Sarkar. 2014. Use of Bacillus subtilis isolates from Tua-nao towards nutritional improvement of soya bean hull for monogastric feed application. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 59:328-333.

Yamauchi, K.-E., T. Incharoen, and K. Yamauchi. 2010. The relationship between intestinal histology and function as shown by compensatory enlargement of remnant villi after midgut resection in chickens. Anat. Rec. 293:2071-2079.


S. Sugiharto (Primary Contact)
T. Yudiarti
I. Isroli
SugihartoS., YudiartiT., & IsroliI. (2019). Growth Performance, Haematological Parameters, Intestinal Microbiology, and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Two-Stage Fermented Cassava Pulp during Finishing Phase. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 42(2), 113-120.

Article Details

List of Cited By :

Crossref logo