Efektivitas jenis adsorben pada pemurnian bertingkat minyak mata tuna kaya DHA Effectiveness of adsorbent type on graded purification of DHA-rich tuna eye oil

Silva Fauziah, Wini Trilaksani, Tati Nurhayati


Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil, plays a crucial role in brain and retina development. Despite the importance of DHA-rich fish oil, mass production remains limited in Indonesia. However, tuna eye, an industrial by-product, shows promise as a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA. Notably, high DHA and polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA in tuna eye oil are prone to oxidation. To address this, double purification (neutralization, bleaching) using different adsorbents (activated alumina, activated charcoal, magnesol XL) reduces oxidation, meeting oil standards. This research aims to determine the best purification treatment through the quality parameters of fish oil to produce tuna eye oil with maximum impurity reduction. The fish oil was obtained by centrifugation process, then it was purified with several treatment level namely, neutralization (N1), neutralization, bleaching (N1B1), neutralization, bleaching, neutralization (N1B1N2), and neutralization, bleaching, neutralization, bleaching (N1B1N2B2). Several types for adsorbent was used for purification process namely 8% activated alumina, 10% activated charcoal, and 5% magnesol XL. Parameters examined include free fatty acids (FFA), acid number, peroxide value, anisidin, and total oxidation (TOTOX). The best treatment resulted was the purification level of N1B1N2B2 with 5% magnesol XL adsorbent. The results indicate significant effects (p<0.05) of adsorbents and extraction levels on oxidation numbers (peroxide, anisidine, free fatty acid and acid value. The refining process yields oil with reduced oxidation parameters, though exceeding the standard, it lowers impurities by 50-80% of initial values.


American Oil Chemists Society. (1998). Free Fatty Acids. In: Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists Society.
Association of Official Analytical Chemist. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical of Chemist.
American Oil Chemists Society. (1997). Official Methods and Recommended Practices of AOCS International.
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas).
Bekdes, B., Bener, M., & Yavuz, E. N. (2022). Determination of primary and secondary oxidation products in vegetable oils with gold nanoparticle based fluorometric turn-on nanosensor : a new total oxidation value. Journal Food Chemistry. 434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.137426
Bija, S., Suseno, S. H., & Uju. (2017). Pemurnian minyak ikan sardine dengan tahapan degumming dan netralisasi. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 20(1), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v23i1.30888
Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2013). Ikan Segar. SNI 2729:2013.
Chew S. C., & Nyam, K. L. (2019). Refining of edible oils. Elsevier Inc.
Damodaran, S., & Parkin, K. L. (2017). Fennema’s Food Chemistry (5th ed., pp. 171-234). CRC Press.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2016). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal, 8(3), 1–107. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461
Fernández-Lucas, J., Castañeda, D., Hormigo, D. (2017). New trends for a classical enzyme: Papain, a biotechnological success story in the food industry. Trends Food Scientific Technology. 68(2017), 91–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.08.017
García-Moreno, P. J., Guadix, A., Goḿez-Robledo, L., Melgosa, M., & Guadix, E.M. (2013). Optimization of bleaching conditions for sardine oil. Journal of Food Engineeing, 116(2), 606–612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.12.040
Ghaly, A. E., & Ramakhrisman, V. (2013). Extraction of Oil from mackerel fish processing waste using alcalase enzyme. Enzyme Engineering, 2(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-6674.1000115
Icyer, N. C., & Durak, M. Z. (2018). Ultrasound-assisted bleaching of canola oil: Improve the bleaching process by central composite design. LWT, 97(7), 640–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.07.030
Ilza M, Karnila R. (2021, September 10-11). Evaluation of nutritional value and quality of toddler biscuits during storage [Conference session]. The 9th International and National Seminar on Fisheries and Marine Science, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series. Earth Environmental Science. https:// doi:10.1088/1755-1315/695/1/012049
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. (1987). Standard methods for the analysis of oils arld fats and derivatives. (6th. ed.). Blackwell Scientific.
Jacobsen, C., Nielsen, N. S., Horn, F. F., & Sørensen, A. D. M. (2013). Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids. (3rd ed., pp. 415-426). Woodhead Publishing.
Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. (2021). Data Impor Minyak Ikan.
Lauritzen, L., Brambilla, P., Mazzocchi, A., Harsløf, L.B.S., Ciappolino, V., Agostoni, C. (2016). DHA effects in brain development and function. Nutrients. 8(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010006
Mazrouh, M. (2015). Effects of freezing storage on the biochemical composition in muscles of Saurida undosquamis (Richardson, 1848) comparing with imported frozen. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(2), 295–299.
Mohanty, B. P., Ganguly, S., Mahanty, A., Sankar, T. V., Anandan, R., Mohanty, B. P., Ganguly, S., Mahanty, A., Sankar, T. V., Anandan, R., Chakraborty, K., Paul, B. N., Sarma, D., Syama, D. J., & Venkateshwarlu, G., et al. (2016). DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 food fishes from India. Biomed Research International, 2016, 1-14 . https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4027437
Monte, M. L., Monte M. L., Pohndorf, R.S., Crexi, V.T., & Pinto, L.A.A. (2015). Bleaching with blends of bleaching earth and activated carbon reduces color and oxidation products of carp oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(6), 829–836. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400223
Nadia A, Subekti S, Manan A, Wahyudin P. (2020, September 26). The effectiveness of activated carbon as adsorbent in the oil purification process fish by-product of the fish canning industry [Conference session]. 2nd International Conference on Fisheries and Marine, Surabaya, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Science. https://doi:10.1088/1755-1315/441/1/012151
Renuka, V., Anandan, R., Suseela, M., Ravishankar, C. N., & Sivaraman, G. K. (2016). Fatty acid profile of yellowfin tuna eye (Thunnus albacares) and oil sardine muscle (Sardinella longiceps). Fisheries Technology, 53(2), 151–154.
Riyanto, B., Trilaksani, W., & Azzahra, V. A. (2020). Desain pangan instan gizi khusus lansia berbasis binte biluhuta diperkaya nanomineral tulang ikan. Jurnal Fishtech, 9(2), 65-77.
Riyanto, B., Sinulingga, F., Trilaksani, W., Fauziah, S., Krisnawan, W. V., Fitradiansyah, L. O., & Rahmat, M. Z. (2021). Formulasi pangan darurat cookies dengan pengkayaan tepung ikan lele dan minyak ikan mata tuna. Jurnal Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan, 12(2), 175-181.
Šimat, V., Vlahovic, J., Soldo, B., Skroza, D., Ljubenkov, I., & Mekinic, I.G. (2019). Production and refinement of omega-3 rich oils from processing by-products of farmed fish species. Foods, 8(4), 125-139.
Sun, Z., Srinivasakannan, C., Liang, J., & Duan, X. (2019). Preparation of hierarchical magnesium silicate with excellent adsorption capacity. Ceramics International, 45(4), 4590–4595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.11.146
Suseno, S. H., Jacoeb, A. M., Bija, S., Hulu, D. P. C., & Fitriana, N. (2016). Active and passive filter combination in scale up purification of sardine fishmeal oil by-product. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 32(4), 2125–2130. https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/320441
Suseno, S. H., Sintoko, E. D. P., Jacoeb, A. M., & Fitriana, N. (2017). Sardine oil purification with winterization. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 33(6), 3150–3159.
Tandewi, S. A. M. S., & Hambali, E. (2021, Agustus 10-11). Refining of Fish oil from fish meal processing by-product using zeolite and bleaching earth [Conference session]. International Conference of Biomass and Bioenergy 2020, Bogor, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1034/1/012050
Trilaksani, W., Riyanto, B., Azzahra, F., Santoso, J., & Tarman, K. (2020, September 09-11). Recovery of tuna virgin fish oil and formulation as a product model of emulsion food supplement [Conference session]. The World Seafood Congress 2019; Seafood Supply Chains of the Future: Innovation, Responsibility, Sustainability, Penang, Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Science. https://doi:10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012027
Trilaksani, W., Riyanto, B., Nurhayati, T., Santoso, J., Abi, I., & Kurniawan, H. (2021). Integrasi sentrifugasi suhu rendah dengan optimasi ekstraksi enzimatis minyak mata tuna menggunakan response surface methodology. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 24(3), 395-406. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v24i3.36652
Trilaksani, W., Riyanto, B., Ramadhan, W., Sinulingga, F., & Fauziah, S. (2023). The characteristics of PUFAs-rich virgin fish oil as affected by size of tuna eye. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity. 24(12), 6545-6556. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d241216
Viau, M., Genot, C., Ribourg, L., Meynier, A. (2016). Amounts of the reactive aldehydes, malonaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in fresh and oxidized edible oils do not necessary reflect their peroxide and anisidine values. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 118(3), 435–444. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201500103
Wang, X., Wen, Y., Bi, S., Li, Z., Xue, Y., Xue, C., & Jiang, X. (2021). Bleaching with the mixed adsorbents of activated earth and activated alumina to reduce color and oxidation products of anchovy oil. Jurnal Ocean University China, 20(5), 1167–1174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11802-021-4732-1


Silva Fauziah
silva_fauziah@apps.ipb.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Wini Trilaksani
Tati Nurhayati
FauziahS., TrilaksaniW., & NurhayatiT. (2024). Efektivitas jenis adsorben pada pemurnian bertingkat minyak mata tuna kaya DHA: Effectiveness of adsorbent type on graded purification of DHA-rich tuna eye oil. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 27(1), 75-88. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v27i1.48865

Article Details