Pengaruh Jenis Pelarut dan Ultrasonikasi terhadap Ekstrak Fikoeritrin dari Kappaphycus alvarezii

The Effect of Different Solvent Type on Phycoerithryn Extract from Kappaphycus alvarezii

  • Anne Mumtaza Putri Teknologi Hasil Perairan
  • Uju
  • Safrina Dyah Hardiningtyas
Keywords: phycobiliprotein, pigment, seaweed, aquadest

Abstract

Kappaphycus alvarezii is a type of red seaweed (Rhodophyta) which contains phycobiliprotein pigments. Red seaweed is dominated by phycoerythrin type phycobiliprotein. Phycoerythrin can be obtained from the extraction process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of solvent type and acceleration time of ultrasonication extraction on phycoerythrin pigments. The extraction process was carried out in stages using distilled water, CaCl2 and phosphate buffer with ultrasonication acceleration of 35-55 minutes. The results showed that the phycoerythrin pigment extract of K. alvarezii using distilled water produced a more concentrated pigment color than buffer phosphate and CaCl2, showing the highest concentration of 0.057 mg/mL, and a purity index of 0.189. Water solvent is safe to use because water does not have toxic power. So, there is no need to conduct a preliminary test for solvent toxicity. It is more economical than other types of solvents. The extraction of phycoerythrin pigment using distilled water for 45 minutes resulted in a more concentrated pigment color. The concentration of phycoerythrin pigment before and after precipitation was 0.170 mg/mL and 0.421 mg/mL, respectively. The phycoerythrin pigment purity index before and after precipitation was 0.301 and 0.831, respectively. The best antioxidant activity (% inhibition) was found at concentrations of 50 ppm and 80 ppm phycoerythrin pigment with extraction time of 45 minutes at 62% and 89% respectively. Protein profile using SDS-Page showed that phycoerythrin has a molecular weight of 16.27 kDa in the subunit, 17.79 kDa in the subunit β, and 30.60 kDa in the subunit γ.

References

Anggadiredja, Jana T, Zatnika A, Purwoto H, Istini S. 2006. Rumput Laut. Jakarta (ID): Penebar Swadaya.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 2005. Official methods of analysis (18 edn). Mayland (US): AOAC Inc.

Babaei R, Jabbari A, Yamini Y. 2006. Solid-liquid extraction of fatty acids of some variety of iranian rice in closed vessel in the absence and presence of ultrasonic waves. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 18(1): 57-64.

Balachandran S, Kentish SE, Mawson R, Ashokkumar M. 2006. Ultrasonic enhancement of the supercritical extraction from ginger. Ultrason Sonochem. 13(6): 471-249.

Barsanti L, Gualtieri P. 2006. Algae, Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology. Boca Raton (US): CRC Press.

Bermúdez-Aguirre D, Mawson R, Barbosa-Cánovas GV. 2011. Study of possible mechanisms of inactivation of Listeria innocua in thermo-sonicated milk using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 35(2011): 767-777.

Budhy TI. 2004. Karsinogenesis karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut yang terinfeksi epstein-barr virus (ebv) berdasar ekspresi p53, c-myc dan bcl-2. [TESIS]. Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Airlangga. Surabaya.

Bulimaga V, Zosim L, Elenciuc D, Rudic V, Bacalov I, Crivoi A. 2018. Study of the action of chromium-containing biopreparations from Spirulina on insulin activity in rats. Biological Markers in Fundamental and Clinical Medicine. 2(2): 81-82.

Cerna M. 2011. Seaweeds protein and amino acids nutraceutical. Advanced in Food and Nutrition Research. 64: 297-312.

Charrier B, Wichard T, Reddy CRK. 2018. Protocols for Macroalgae Research 1st Edition. Boca Raton (US): Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press

D’ Alessandro EBD, Antoniosi NR. 2016. Concepts and studies on lipid and pigments of microalgae: a Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Revi ews. 58(C): 832-841.

D’Armas H, Jaramillo C, D’Armas M, Echavarría A, Valverde P. 2019. Proximate composition of several green, brown and red seaweeds from the coast of Ecuador. Revista de Biología Tropical. 67(1): 61–68.

Darmawati. 2012. Perubahan sel rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii yang dibudidayakan pada kedalaman berbeda. Octopus: Jurnal Ilmu Perikanan. 1(2): 65-69.

Dumay J, Morancais M, Munier M, Guillard CL, Fleurence J. 2014. Phycoerythrins: valuable proteinic pigments in red seaweeds. Advances in Botanical Research. 71(11): 321-331.

El-aty AMA, Mohamed AA, Samhan FA. 2014. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two fresh water Cyanobacterial species, Oscillatoria agardhii and Anabaena sphaerica. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 4(07): 69-75.

Farihah S, Yulianto B, Yudiati E. 2014. Penentuan kandungan pigmen fikobiliprotein ekstrak Spirulina platensis dengan teknik ekstraksi berbeda dan uji toksisitas metode bslt. Journal of Marine Research Universitas Diponegoro. 3(2): 140-146.

Fretes, de H, AB Susanto, Budhi P, Heriyanto, Tatas HP, Brotosudarmo, Limantara L. 2012. Estimasi produk degradasi ekstrak kasar pigmen alga merah Kappaphycus alvarezii (doty) doty varian merah, cokelat, dan hijau: Telaah perbedaan spektrum serapan. Ilmu Kelautan. 17(1): 31-38.

Germanyta AA, Jularso E, Budhy TI. 2016. The identification of periapical granuloma protein using SDS-PAGE method. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3(1): 11-16.

Gebhardt SE, Thomas RG. 2002. Nutritive value of food. Agricultural Research Service. Beltsville (US): US Department of Agriculture.

Graham LE, Wilcox LW. 2000. Algae. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall.

Handaratri A, Yuniati Y. 2019. Kajian ekstraksi antosianin dari buah murbei dengan metode sonikasi dan microwave. Reka Buana : Jumal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil dan Teknik Kimia 4(1): 63.

Hardjani, K.D, Suantika, G, Aditiawati, P. 2017. Nutritional profile of red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii after fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed supplement for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei nutritional profile of fermented red seaweed. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 11(4):1637-1645.

Hemwimol S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A. 2006. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 13(6): 543-548.

Hidhayati N, Agustini NWS, Apriastini M, Margaretha C. 2020. Potensi pigmen fikobiliprotein sebagai agen antioksidan dan toksisitas hayati dari sianobakteria Chroococcus turgidus. Biopropal Industri. 11(1): 41.

Isailovic D, Li HW, Yeung ES. 2004. Isolation and characterization of R-phycoerythrin subunits and enzymatic digests. Journal of Chromatography A. 1051(1-2): 119-130.

Kawsar S, Yuki F, Ryo M, Hidetaro Y, Yasuhiro O. 2011. Protein R-phycoerythrin from marine red alga Amphiroa anceps: extraction, purification and characterization. Phytologia balcanica. 17(3): 347-354.

Kentish S, Ashokkumar M. 2011. The physical and chemical effects of ultrasound. Di dalam: Feng, Hao, Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo V, Weiss, Jochen, editor. Ultrasound Technologies for Food and Bioprocessing. New York (US): Springer.

Kursar TA, Meer JVD, Alberte RS. 1983. Light harvesting system of the red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae. Plant Physiology. 73(2): 353-360.

Lemmli UK. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of Bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227(5259): 680-685.

Lee RE. 2008. Phycology fourth edition. New York (US): Cambridge University Press.

Liu W, Yu Y, Yang R, Wan C, Xu B, Cao S. 2010. Optimization of total flavonoid compound extraction from Gynura medica leaf using response surface methodology and chemical composition analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 11(11):47504763.

Marinho-Soriano E, PC Fonseca, MAA Carneiro, WSC Moreira. 2006. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of two tropical seaweeds. Bioresource Technology. 97: 2402-2406.

Marsac, NT. 2003. Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Journal of Structural Biology. 124(2-3): 311-334.

Maulani RK, Marlina A, Gunarto I. 2017. Karakteristik jaringan secara histologi dari strain rumput laut (Kappaphycus alvarezii) yang terinfeksi penyakit ice-ice. Torani: JFMarSci. 1(1):45-57.

Mayasari NR, Karseno, Setyawati R. 2018. Identifikasi pigmen fikobiliprotein pada Kappaphycus alvarezii dalam pelarut buffer fosfat dengan metode freeze thaw cycle. Jurnal Mitra Kesehatan. 1(2): 96-104.

Munier M, Dumay J, Morançais M, Jaouen P, Fleurence J. 2013. Variation in the biochemical composition of the edible seaweed Grateloupia turuturu Yamada harvested from two sampling sites on the Brittany Coast (France): the influence of the storage method on extraction og the seaweed pigment R-phycoerythrin. Journal of Chemistry.

Murtoyo AB, Susanto MM, Khoeri. 2010. Rumput laut sebagai penghasil agar dan karaginan. Yayasan Rumput Laut Indonesia. (1):1-116.

Niu JF, Wang GC, Tseng CK. 2006. Method for large-scale isolation and purification of R-phycoerythrin from red alga Polysiphonia urceolata Grev. Protein Expression and Purification. 49(1): 23-31.

Nurhayati, Mappiratu, Musafira. 2018. Pembuatan konsentrat protein dari biji kelor (Moringa oleifera l.) dan analisis profil asam amino. Jurnal riset kimia KOVALEN. 4(1): 24-32.

Pan Q, Chen M, Li J, Wu Y, Zhen C, Liang B. 2013. Antitumor function and mechanism of phycoerythrin from Porphyra haitanensis. Biological Research. 46(1): 87-95.

Renaud SM, Luong-Van JT. 2006. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of tropical Australian marine macroalgae. Journal of Applied Phycology. 18(3):381-387.

Rossano R, Ungaro N, D’Ambrosio A, Liuzzi GM, Riccio P. 2003. Extracting and purifying R-phycoeryhtrin from Mediterranean red algae Corallina elongate Ellis & Solander. Journal of Biotechnology. 101(3): 289-293.

Rowan KS. 1989. Photosynthetic Pigments of Algae. New York (US): Cambridge University Press.

Sangeetha P, Babu S, Rengasamy R. 2017. Antioxidant properties of r-phycoerythrin from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Journal of Innovative Research and Solutions. 3(1): 47-56.

Sethilkumar N, Suresh V, Thangam R, Kurinjimalar C, Kavitha G, Murugan P, Kannan S, Rengasamy R. 2013. Isolation and characterization of macromolecular protein R-phycoerythrin from Portieria hornemannii. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 55: 150-160.

Sharmila Banu VM, Santhosh S, Hemalatha V, Venkatakrishnan V, Dhandapani R. 2017. Optimization study on extraction & purification of phycoerythrin from red algae Kappaphycus Alvarezii. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10(2): 297-302.

Sharmila G, Muthukumaran C, Suriya E, Muppidathi KR, Kamatchi M, Kumar NM, Anbarasan T, Jeyanthi J. 2019. Ultrasound aided extraction of yellow pigment from Tecoma castanifolia floral petals: Optimization by response surface method and evaluation of the antioxidant activity. Industrial Crops and Products.130: 467-477

Shirsath SR, Sonawane SH, Gogate PR. 2012. Intensification of extraction of natural products using ultrasonic irradiations-A Review of current status. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification 53: 10-23.

Sindumarta H, Natalia D. 1999. Catatan Kuliah Biokimia 1: Struktur dan Katalir. Jurusan Kimia MIPA. Bandung: ITB.

Sudhakar MP, Saraswathi M, Nair BB. 2014. Extraction, purification and application study of R-phycoerythrin from Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh var. corticata. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 5(4): 371-374.

Syafar A, Aslianti, Asyik N. 2019. Pengaruh penambahan rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii terhadap kualitas sensorik dan proksimat puding. Journal of Fisheries Processing Technology. 2(2): 244-250.

Tandeau NM. 2003. Phycobiliprotein and phycobilisome: the early observations. Photosythesis Research. 76(1-3): 193-205.

Treybal RE.1981. Mass Transfer Operations 3th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill Inc

Uju, Dewi NPSUK, Santoso J, Setyaningsih I, Hardingtyas SD, Yopi. 2020. Extraction of phycoerythrin from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed using ultrasonication. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 414(2020): 012028.

Wang CC, Chou YY, Sheu SR, Jang MJ, Chen TH. 2011. Application of ultrasound thermal process on extracting flavor and caffeine of coffee. Thermal Science. 15(suppl.1): 69-74.

Wang H, Shi L, Yang X, Hong R, Li L. 2018. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural yellow pigment from Physalis pubescens L. and its antioxidant activities. Journal of Chemistry. 2018.

Widyasanti A, Novira N, Endah W. 2018. Karakteristik fisikokimia antosianin ekstrak kulit buah naga merah menggunakan metode UAE. Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem. 6(1): 27-38.

Wong KH, Cheung PC. 2000. Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweed: proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physicochemical properties. Food Chemistry. 7(4): 475-482.

Xiren GK, Aminah A. 2017. Proximate composition and total amino acid composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii found in the waters of Langkawi and Sabah, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal. 24(3):1255-1260.

Zawawi D, Hatta MZM, Kassim ASM, Aripin AM. 2014. Analysis of the chemical compositions and fiber morphology of pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Sciences. 14(12): 1355-1358.

Zhong Y, Shobo A, Hancock MA, Multhaup G. 2019. Label-free distribution of anti-amyloid D-AIP in Drosophila melanogaster: prevention of Aβ42-induced toxicity without side effects in transgenic flies. Journal of Neurochemistry. 150(1): 74-87.

Published
2021-09-29