Perbedaan Mutu Permen Jeli Kappaphycus alvarezii yang Dikemas Edible Film Berbasis Gelatin-CMC-Lilin Lebah dan Gelatin-Kitosan-Nanokitin

Quality Differences of Jelly Candy Kappaphycus alvarezii Wrapped in CMC-Beewax-Gelatin and Chitosan-Nanochitin Gelatin Based Edible Film

  • Asri Silvana Naiu Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
  • Nikmawatisusanti Yusuf Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
  • Srirahayu Cahyani Yusuf Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
  • Yusnina S Hudongi Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo
Keywords: gelatin based edible film, jelly candy, nanochitin

Abstract

This study aimed to analyze differences in the quality of seaweed jelly candy wrapped with natural packaging of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-beeswax gelatin based edible film and nanochitin-chitosan gelatin based edible film. The interaction of different compounds in edible films is thought to affect the quality of jelly candy during storage. The treatment in this study is the accelerated storage time of candy using a chamber for 15 days at a higher temperature (40oC) with 75% humidity which is equivalent to 60 days at room temperature. The data obtained were analyzed by independent T-Test to determine the differences in water vapor of transmission rate (WVTR) of edible film, the microbiological and the chemical quality of jelly candy. Mann-Whitney U-Test to assay sensory level of jelly candy wrapped with both treatments. The parameters tested were WVTR of the edible film and the quality of the jelly candy which included water content, reducing sugar content, total plate count (TPC), and sensory quality at the 95% confidence level. The T-Test showed that there were no differences in WVTR while reduction sugar and total microbial values were significantly variances from the first day and water content seemed difference at last day (60th day). The Mann-Whitney U-Test showed variances in the appearance value of the candy starting from the 24th day, and the aroma from the 12th day, while the taste and the texture were not significantly different. The best quality of candy was obtained from the nanochitin-chitosan gelatin based edible film.

References

Afifah K, Sumaryati E, Sui M. (2017). Studi pembuatan permen jelly dengan variasi konsentrasi sari kulit buah naga (Hylocereus costaricencis) dan ekstrak angkak. Agrika Ilmu-Ilmu Pertanian. 11(2): 206–220.

Aminulloh M. (2019). Uji beda dua rata-rata variabel independen menggunakan metode bootstrap dan aplikasinya di R. [Skripsi]. Malang(ID): Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim].

[ASTM]. American Society for Testing and Materials. (2000). Standard test methods for water vapor transmission of materials. (Patent No. E96).

[BSN]. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2008). Standar Nasional Indonesia 3547.2 Kembang Gula Bagian 2: Lunak.

Darni Y, Utami H, Asriasi. (2009). Peningkatan hidrofobisitas dan sifat fisik plastik biodegradabel pati tapioka dengan penambahan selulosa residu rumput laut Eucheuma spinossum. Lampung (ID): Fakultas Teknik Unila.

Diova DA, Darmanto YS, Rianingsih L. (2013). Karakteristik edible film komposit semirefined karaginan dari rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii dan beeswax. Jurnal Pengolahan Dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan. 2(4): 1–10.

Gennadios A, Weller CL, Gooding CH. (1994). Measurement errors in water vapor permeability of highly permeable, hydrophilic edible films. Journal of Food Engineering. 21(4): 395-409.

Harijono Kusnadi J, Mustikasari S. (2001). Pengaruh kadar karaginan dan total padatan terlarut sari buah apel muda terhadap aspek kualitas permen jelly. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 2(2): 110–116.

Hasegawa M, Isogai A, Onabe F, Usuda M. (1992). Characterization of cellulose-chitosan blend films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 45: 1873–1879.

Kanani N, Ekasari, Wardalia, Subkhan A, Rizky R. (2018). Pengaruh penambahan gliserol dan lilin lebah pada susut berat buah sawo khas Banten. Jurnal Konversi Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. 7(2): 37–44.

Ketaren S. (2005). Minyak dan lemak pangan. Jakarta(ID): Universitas Indonesia.

Kim HS, Lee YJ, Koo YJ, Pack EC, Lim KM, Choi DW. (2021). Migration of monomers, plastic additives, and non-intentionally added substances from food utensils made of melamine–formaldehyde resin following ultraviolet sterilization. Food Control. 125 (February): 107981.

Krochta J, Baldwin E, Nisperos-Carriedo M. (1994). Edible coating and films to improve food quality. Lancaster(US): Technomic Publication.

Kumar R, Muzzarelli RAA, Muzzarelli C, Sashiwa H, Domb A. (2004). Chitosan chemistry and pharmaceutical perspectives. Journal of Chemistry. Review. 104 (12): 6017–6084.

Kusbiantoro B. (2011). Kajian perubahan flavor buah durian terolah minimal berpelapis edibel selama penyimpanan. [Disertasi]. Bogor(ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Mahardika BC, Darmanto YS, Dewi EN. (2014). Karakteristik permen jelly dengan penggunaan campuran semi refined carrageenan dan alginat dengan konsentrasi berbeda. Jurnal Pengolahan Dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan. 3(4): 112–120.

Moniharapon A. (2016). Karakteristik kimia dan organoleptik permen jelly rumput laut the chemical and organoleptic properties of seaweed jelly. Jurnal Penelitian Teknologi Industri. 8(2): 91–96.

Naiu AS. (2020). Edible film berbasis nanokitin dan nanokaragenan serta aplikasinya pada udang rebus tanpa kulit. [Disertasi]. Manado (ID): Universitas Sam Ratulangi.

Naiu AS, Berhimpon S, Montolalu IR, Kawung NJ, Suptijah P. (2020). The effect of hcl-thermal pressure hydrolysis and high-speed destruction of chitin on particle size distribution and functional group of nano-chitin compound. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 8(1): 197–205.

Nilwan K, Benjakul S, Prodpran T. (2016). Quality changes of shrimp cracker covered with fish gelatin film without and with palm oil incorporated during storage. International Aquatic Research. 8(3): 227–238.

Ningsi M, Naiu AS, Yusuf N. (2020). Karakteristik mutu permen buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus) yang difortifikasi rumput laut (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Jambura Fish Processing Journal. 2(1): 12–20.

Nurindra AP, Alamsjah AM, Sudarno S. (2019). Karakterisasi edible film dari pati propagul mangrove lindur (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) dengan penambahan Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) sebagai pemlastis. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan Dan Kelautan. 7(2): 125-132.

Panjaitan P, Fiani R, Aripudin, Adi C, Soeprijadi L. (2020). Pengaruh penambahan edible coating kitosan rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) terhadap sensori dodol betawi. Jurnal Airaha. 9(2): 155–160.

Rochima E. (2007). Karakterisasi kitin dan kitosan asal limbah rajungan Cirebon Jawa Barat. Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan. X(1): 9–22.

Rochima E, Fiyanih E, Afrianto E, Joni IM, Subhan U, Panatarani C. (2018). Efek Penambahan suspensi nanokitosan pada edible coating terhadap aktivitas antibakteri. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 21(1): 127.

Ruban S. (2009). Biobased packaging-aplication in meat industry. Journal of Food Technology. 2(2): 79–82.

Sahraee S. (2017). Effect of corn oil on physical, thermal, and antifungal properties of gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing nano chitin. LWT-Food Science and Technology.

Salamah E, Erungan AC, Retnowati Y. (2006). Pemanfaatan Gracilaria sp. dalam pembuatan permen jelly. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 9(1): 39-48.

Setyaningsih D, Apriyantono A, Sari M. (2010). Analisis Sensoris: Untuk industri pangan dan agro (Raharjo S, Adawiyah (Ed.)). Bogor: IPB Press.

Sriwidadi T. (2011). Penggunaan uji Mann-Whitney pada analisis pengaruh pelatihan wiraniaga dalam penjualan produk baru. Binus Business Review. 2(2): 751–762.

Susanti R. (2018). Pengaruh kemasan berbeda terhadap mutu permen jelly rumput laut (Gracilaria sp.) selama penyimpanan suhu ruang [Skripsi]. Universitas Riau.

Syarief R, Halid H. (1993). Teknologi penyimpanan pangan. Kerjasama dengan Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan dan Gizi IPB. Jakarta: Arcan.

Tasha N, Garnida Y, Cahyadi W. (2016). Pemanfaatan pati sorgum (Sorghum bicolor) dengan bahan penstabil CMC terhadap karakteristik edible packaging bumbu mie instan. Bandung (ID): Universitas Pasundan Bandung.

Togas C, Berhimpon S, Montolalu RI, Dien AH, Mentang F. (2017). Karakteristik fisik edible film komposit karaginan dan lilin lebah menggunakan proses nanoemulsi. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 20(3): 468–477.

Wahyuni S, Khaeruni A. (2014). Kitosan cangkang udang windu sebagai pengawet fillet ikan gabus (Channa striata). Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 16(3): 233-241.

Warkoyo, Rahardjo B, Marseno WD, Karyadi NWJ. (2014). Sifat fisik, mekanik dan barrier edible film berbasis pati umbi kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) yang diinkorporasi dengan kalium sorbat. Agritech. 34(1): 72–81.

Yahya K, Naiu AS, Yusuf N. (2015). Karakteristik organoleptik dodol ketan yang dikemas dengan edible coating dari kitosan rajungan selama penyimpanan suhu ruang. Nike Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan Dan Kelautan. 3(3): 111-117.

Yam K. (2007). Gas permeation of packaging materials. Di dalam Yam K, Editor. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology (pp. 551–555). US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Yusuf N, Naiu AS. (2021). Ekstraksi gelatin tulang ikan tuna Thunnus sp. menggunakan cuka aren. Patent No. S00202101217. Jakarta (ID): Direktorat Jenderal Kekayaan Intelektual.

Zhong QP, Xia WS. (2008). Physicochemical properties of edible and preservative films from chitosan/cassava starch/gelatin blend plasticized with glycerol. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 46(3): 262–269.

Published
2021-12-31