Evaluation of the Tourism Management CHSE Protocol during the Covid 19 Pandemic in the Situ Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Area

Ismeth Emier Osman, Nurbaeti, Adam Rachmatullah, Fetty Asmaniaty, Jatna Supriatna, Djoni Wibowo


This study aimed to evaluate the Tourism Management CHSE Protocol during the Covid 19 Pandemic in the Situ Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Area. The framework of the approach used in this research was phenomenology, which was then enriched with the data collection techniques of study documentation, observation, and close-ended questionnaire. The analytical method utilized was the One Score One Indicator Scoring System, an analysis model that was used through developing elaboration of questionnaires in collecting data and evaluating various variables that researchers had determined. Then, two critical issues were examined in the polarization analysis to understand the differentiation between actors, namely polarization of direction and rating scale, and then tested statistically using Kruskal Wallis test to know the polarization significance. Overall, based on the assessment of 189 CHSE indicators, the data shows that the implementation of CHSE in Situ Gunung GGPNP results in a reasonable conclusion or score of 6. When viewed based on stakeholder polarization where the data shows there is no polarization of direction between stakeholders on CHSE management at Situ Gunung. Things are different when viewed in terms of average values, where the study results show the polarization of each actor's attitude scale on the CHSE implementation assessment. The aggressive strategy is carried out by optimizing three crucial aspects: 1) Strengthening CHSE Management Policies and Implementation; 2) Optimizing Ecotourism Carrying Capacity.


Altinay, L., & Paraskevas, A. (2008). Planning research in hospitality and tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Avenzora, R. (Ed.). (2008). Ekoturisme-Teori dan praktek. Banda Aceh: BRR NAD-Nias.

Avenzora, R. (2013). Ekoturisme: Teori dan implikasi. In D. Darusman, & R. Avenzora (Eds.), Pembangunan ekowisata pada kawasan hutan produksi: Potensi dan pemikiran (pp. 61–95). Bogor: IPB University.

Boin, A., & Hart, P. (2010). Organising for effective emergency management: Lessons from research. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 69(4), 357–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8500.2010.00694.x

Chebli, A. (2020). The impact of covid-19 on tourist consumption behaviour: A perspective article. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 7(2), 196–207. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.31.2020.72.196.207

Cahyanto, I., Wiblishauser, M., Pennington-Gray, L., & Schroeder, A. (2016). The dynamics of travel avoidance: The case of ebola in the US. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.09.004

Ceballos-Lascuráin, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. Cambridge: IUCN Publications.

Cheng, J., & Zetina, Z. (2021). A study to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourist arrivals in Belize. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9(7), 326–334. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97023

Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (1998). Tourism principles and practice-second edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Fenichel, E. P., Kuminoff, N. V., & Chowell, G. (2013). Skip the trip: Air travelers’ behavioral responses to pandemic influenza. PLoS One, 8(3), e58249. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058249

Ferdiansyah, F., Ridho, A, M., Sembilan, D, F & Zahro, F, S. (2020). Online literature circles during the COVID‐19 pandemic: Engaging undergraduate students in Indonesia. TESOL Journal, 11(3), e00544. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.544

Fong, L. H. N., Law, R., & Ye, B. H. (2020). Outlook of tourism recovery amid an epidemic: Importance of outbreak control by the government. Annals of Tourism Research, 86, 102951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102951

Gossling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of Covid-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708

Griskevicius, V., & Kenrick, D. T. (2013). Fundamental motives: How evolutionary needs influence consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23(3), 372–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2013.03.003

Inskeep, E. (1991). Tourism planning: An integrated and sustainable development approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[Kemenparekraf] Kementerian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif. (2020). Panduan pelaksanaan kelestarian lingkungan di daya tarik wisata (Edisi Agustus, 72). Jakarta: Kementerian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif Republik Indonesia.

Liu, Z. H. (1994). Tourism development–A systems analysis. In A. V. Seaton (Ed.), Tourism: The state of the art (pp. 20–30). Chichester: John Wiley.

Loannides, D & Gyimóthy, S. (2020). The covid-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 624–632. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763445

Magnini, V. P., & Zehrer, A. (2021). Subconscious influences on perceived cleanliness in hospitality settings. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 102761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102761

Niewiadomski, P. (2020). Covid-19: From temporary de-globalisation to a re-discovery of tourism? Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 651–656. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1757749

Nurazizah, G. R. (2014). Kajian daya dukung ekologis dan psikologis untuk wisata di Taman Wisata Bertema. Studi kasus Taman Wisata Matahari, Cisarua Bogor [thesis]. Bogor: IPB University.

Pigram, J. J., & Jenkins, J. M. (1999). Outdoor recreation management. London: Routledge.

Prato, T. (2009). Fuzzy adaptive management of social and ecological carrying capacities for protected areas. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2551–2557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.015

Rachmatullah, A. (2017). Polarisasi orientasi pemanfaatan lahan untuk pembangunan ekowisata di Ranah Minang Sumatera Barat [thesis]. Bogor: IPB University.

Rittichainuwat, B., Laws, E., Scott, N., & Rattanaphinanchai, S. (2017). Authenticity in screen tourism: Significance of real and substituted screen locations. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(8), 1274–1294. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348017736568

Roscoe. (1982). Research methods for business. New York: Mc Graw Hill.

Seidl, I, & Tisdell, C. A. (1999). Carrying capacity reconsidered: From Malthus’ population theory to cultural carrying capacity. Ecological Economics, 31, 395–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00063-4

Simon, F. J. G., Narangajavana, Y., & Marques, D. P. (2004). Carrying capacity in the tourism industry: A case study of Hengistbury Head. Tourism Management, 25, 275–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00089-X

Sharpley, R. (2009). Tourism development and the environment beyond sustainability? London: Earthscan.

Sudjana, A. A., Aini, N. S., & Nizar, H. K. (2021). Revenge tourism: Analisis minat wisatawan pasca pandemi Covid-19. Pringgitan, 2(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.47256/prg.v2i1.119

Sugiyono. (2012). Metode penelitian kombinasi (mixed Mmethods). Bandung: Alfabeta.
Teguh, F. (2020, September 30). Strategi pengembangan pariwisata berkelanjutan [Conference presentation]. Seminar Online MSP Seri 8 Kementerian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif/Badan Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif, Jakarta.

[UNWTO] United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2020a, May 7). International tourist numbers could fall 60-80% in 2020, UNWTO Reports. https://www.unwto.org/news/covid-19-international-tourist-numbers-could-fall-60-80-in-2020

[UNWTO] United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2020b). Tourism and COVID-19 unprecedented economic impacts. World Tourism Organization, Secretary-General’s Policy Brief on Tourism and COVID-19.

Wang, J., Liu-Lastres, B., Shi, Y., & Li, T. (2019). Thirty years of research on tourism safety and security: A comparative automated content analysis approach. Journal of China Tourism Research, 15(3), 340–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/19388160.2019.1575779

Wong, C. W. J., & Lai, W. K. I. (2022). The mechanism influencing the residents’ support of the government policy for accelerating tourism recovery under Covid-19. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 25, 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.06.018


Ismeth Emier Osman
Adam Rachmatullah
Rachmatullah@stptrisakti.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Fetty Asmaniaty
Jatna Supriatna
Djoni Wibowo
OsmanI. E., Nurbaeti, RachmatullahA., AsmaniatyF., SupriatnaJ., & WibowoD. (2023). Evaluation of the Tourism Management CHSE Protocol during the Covid 19 Pandemic in the Situ Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Area . Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 29(1), 45. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.29.1.45

Article Details