Evaluation of Soft Skill Training to Strengthen Collaborative Management of National Parks in Sumatera, Indonesia
A series of soft skill training in four national parks of Sumatra Island were conducted by PILI Green Network NGO, DG of Natural Resources and Essential Ecosystem Conservation of the MoEF, and Sumatran Tiger Project-UNDP for 12 months in 2019. The training aims at improving soft skill capacity of the national park staff on conflict management and collaborative actions with the communities in the buffer zone. This paper aims 1) to evaluate the soft skill training programme achievement by employing Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model; 2) to analyse factors of Training Program participants that influence on the individual soft skill enhancement by using multiple linear regression analysis. The results show that soft skill training was effective to increase the knowledge and skill of the participating staff, especially in participatory approaches, conflict management, and the development of a collaborative business model. Three factors, including work experience, the suitability of background education and similar training experience, have significant influences on the individual soft skill enhancement. Training design, which was bottom-up and participatory based on the needs of the resorts as a spearheading of national park management, contributes to the success of the training implementation. The training has created a ‘common room’ for the participating staff and the communities in terms of opening communication and development of collaborative action plans at each national park.
Adewumi, I. B., Funck, C., Nguyen, V. H. , & Usui, R. (2019). A cross‐national comparative study on collaborative management of national parks. Parks, 25(1), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.2305/iucn.ch.2019.parks-25-1iba.en
Adom, D., Sawicka., B., Umachandran., K., & Ziarati, P. (2020). Efficient approaches in ensuring the active involvement of local people in biodiversity conservation projects. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 20(2), 17–31. Retrieved from http://ijens.org/Vol_20_I_02/200602-4343-IJBAS-IJENS.pdf
Agfar, A., Munandar, A., & Surakusumah, W. (2018). Environmental literacy based on educational background. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1013, 012008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1013/1/012008
Allendorf, T. D., Radeloff, V. C., & Keuler, N. S. (2019). People’s perceptions of protected areas across spatial scales. Parks, 25(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.2305/iucn.ch.2019.parks-25-1tda.en
Allendorf, T. D., Swe, K. K., Aung, M., & Thorsen, A. (2018). Community use and perceptions of a biodiversity corridor in Myanmar’s threatened southern forests. Global Ecology and Conservation, 15, e00409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00409
Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is qualitative in qualitative research. Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-019-9413-7
Bennett, N. J. (2016). Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology, 30(3), 582–592. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12681
Botke, J. A., Jansen, P. G. W., Khapova, S. N., & Tims, M. (2018). Work factors influencing the transfer stages of soft skills training: A literature review. Educational Research Review, 24, 130–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.04.001
Cimatti, B. (2016). Definition, development, assessment of soft skills and their role for the quality of organizations and enterprises. International Journal for Quality Research, 10(1), 97–130. https://doi.org/10.18421/IJQR10.01-05
Civitillo, S., Juang, L. P., & Schachner, M. K. (2018). Challenging beliefs about cultural diversity in education: A synthesis and critical review of trainings with pre-service teachers. Educational Research Review, 24, 67–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.01.003
Dudley, N., Stolton, S., Pasha, M. K. S., Baltzer, M., Yap, W. L., Sharma, M., …, & Boron, V. (2020). How effective are tiger conservation areas at managing their sites against the conservation assured | tiger standards (Ca|Ts)? Parks, 26(2), 115–128. https://doi.org/10.2305/iucn.ch.2020.parks-26-2nd.en
Farjad, S. (2012). The evaluation effectiveness of training courses in university by Kirkpatrick model (Case study: Islamshahr University). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2837–2841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.573
Geldmann, J., Manica, A., Burgess, N. D., Coad, L., & Balmford, A. (2019). A global-level assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas at resisting anthropogenic pressures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(46), 23209–23215. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1908221116
Heydari, M. R., Taghva, F., Amini, M., & Delavari, S. (2019). Using Kirkpatrick’s model to measure the effect of a new teaching and learning methods workshop for health care staff. BMC Research Notes, 12(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4421-y
Hyder, H., Mahmood, Z., & Hasan, S. H. (2020). Soft skills: A research study on outdoing academics and conquer the world. Palarch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(7), 78057815.
Kihima, B. O., & Musila, P. M. (2019). Extent of local community participation in tourism development in conservation areas: A case study of mwaluganje conservancy. Parks, 25(2), 47–56. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2019.PARKAS-25-2BOK.en
Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels. (3rd ed.). California: Berrett-Koehler Publisher.
Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193–212. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/40214287
Lobchuk, M., Bell, A., Hoplock, L., & Lemoine, J. (2020). Interprofessional discharge team communication and empathy in discharge planning activities: A narrative review. Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice, 100393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xjep.2020.100393
Lotrecchiano, G. R., Mallinson, T. R., Leblanc-Beaudoin, T., Schwartz, L. S., Lazar, D., & Falk-Krzesinski, H. J. (2016). Individual motivation and threat indicators of collaboration readiness in scientific knowledge producing teams: A scoping review and domain analysis. Heliyon, 2(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00105
Luskin, M. S., Albert, W. R., & Tobler, M. W. (2017). Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks. Nature Communications, 8(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01656-4
Margono, B. A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A., Goetz, S., & Hansen, M. C. (2012). Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters, 7(3), 034010. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034010
Meehan, F., & Tacconi, L. (2017). A framework to assess the impacts of corruption on forests and prioritize responses. Land Use Policy, 60, 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.10.021
Moeliono, M., Limberg, G., Minnigh, P., Mulyana, A., Indriatmoko, Y., Utomo, N. A., …, & Purwanto, E. (2010). Meretas kebuntuan: Konsep dan panduan pengembangan zona khusus bagi taman nasional di Indonesia. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor/003109
Mogomotsi, P. K., Mogomotsi, G. E. J., Dipogiso, K., Phonchi-Tshekiso, N. D., Stone, L. S., & Badimo, D. (2020). An analysis of communities’ attitudes toward wildlife and implications for wildlife sustainability. Tropical Conservation Science, 13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082920915603
Mukmin, M. (2019). The effect of educational background and language competence on students’ Arabic language motivation. Arabiyat: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab dan Kebahasaaraban, 6(1), 36–52. https://doi.org/10.15408/a.v6i1.10484
Oldekop, J. A., Holmes, G., Harris, W. E., & Evans, K. L. (2016). A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas. Conservation Biology, 30(1), 133–141. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12568
Oleśniewicz, P., Pytel, S., Markiewicz-Patkowska, J., Szromek, A. R., & Jandová, S. (2020). A model of the sustainable management of the natural environment in national parks-a case study of national parks in Poland. Sustainability, 12(7), 2704. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072704
Sarstedt, M., & Mooi, E. (2014). Regression analysis. A concise guide to market research: The process, data, and methods using IBM SPSS Statistics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-53965-7
Soehartono, T., & Mardiastuti, A. (2014). National park governance in Indonesia: Lessons learned from seven national parks. Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry.
Sriyanto, A. (2017). Laporan identifikasi kesenjangan keterampilan dan kajian kebutuhan pelatihan pengelolaan taman nasional dan konservasi Harimau Sumatera. Jakarta: KLHK/UNDP-STP.
Tsey, K., Lui, S. M. (Carrie), Heyeres, M., Pryce, J., Yan, L., & Bauld, S. (2018). Developing soft skills: Exploring the feasibility of an Australian well-being program for health managers and leaders in Timor-Leste. SAGE Open, 8(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018811404
Twongyirwe, R., Bithell, M., Richards, K. S., & Rees, W. G. (2017). Do livelihood typologies influence local perceptions of forest cover change? Evidence from a tropical forested and non-forested rural landscape in western Uganda. Journal of Rural Studies, 50, 12–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.12.009
Zemanova, M. A., Perotto-Baldivieso, H. L., Dickins, E. L., Gill, A. B., Leonard, J. P., & Wester, D. B. (2017). Impact of deforestation on habitat connectivity thresholds for large carnivores in tropical forests. Ecological Processes, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-017-0089-1
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.