Institutional Impacts on Choice of Traditional Agroforestry-Based Rural Community Livelihood Strategies in Maluku (Utilization of “Dusung” and Nutmeg in Booi Village, Maluku)

Hendri Dony Hahury, Tity Susilowati Prabawa, Pamerdi Giri Wiloso, Tontji Soumokil, Marthen Luther Ndoen


The ability of rural communities responding to vulnerabilities highly depends on local and institutional adaptations. The institutional adaptation is formed based on habits rooted in the community’s local knowledge and life experience. Utilization of traditional agroforestry on rural land is unique for each individual, resulting different livelihood strategies to deal with vulnerability. This study aims to understand institutional impacts on the choice of rural livelihood strategies through traditional agroforestry using an institutional approach (traditions, customs, and rules) and a livelihood framework. This research was conducted in Booi Village, Maluku, from October 2016 to September 2018. The data was collected through in-depth interviews and document studies. Interviews were conducted to key informants such as Raja (head) of Booi Village, farmers (landowners), community members who did not own land, and village governments. The results showed that the community had a variety of choices for livelihood strategies, including intensification, extensification, diversification, and “holding” nutmeg seeds. The presence of institutional impact was also proven to have a significant effect on the livelihoods of the Booi community, for example, in the form of access for the community who did not have assets (informal insurance).


Adger, W. N. (2003). Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography, 79(4), 387–404. Retrieved from
Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2000). Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Journal of Ecological Applications, 10(5), 1251–1261.[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2
Booi Village Government. (2018). Statistics of Booi Village.
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistika Maluku Tengah. (2018). Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dalam angka 2018.
Brunelle, T., Dumas, P., Aoun, W. B., & Gabrielle, B. (2018). Unravelling land-use change mechanisms at global and regional scales. BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality, 3.
Budiono, R., Nugroho, B., Hardjanto, & Nurrochmat, D. R. (2018). The village forest as a counter teritorialization by village communiities in Kampar Peninsula Riau. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 24(3), 115–125.
Caillois, J. M. (2004). Social capital and local economic development: For an application to French rural spaces. Journal of Regional and Urban Economics, 4(4), 551–578.
Chariri, A. (2009). Landasan filsafat dan metode penelitian kualitatif. Semarang: Laboratorium Pengembangan Akuntansi (LPA), Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Diponegoro.
Contreras, H. A., & Fay, C. (2005). Strengthening forest management in Indonesia through land tenure reform: Issues and framework for action. Forest Trends. Retrieved from
Creswell, J. W. (2010). Research design: Pendekatan kualitatif, kuantitatif dan mixed. Yogjakarta: PT Pustaka Pelajar.
Dias, L. C. P., Pimenta, F. M., Santos, A. B., Costa, M. H., & Ladle, R. J. (2016). Patterns of land use, extensification, and intensification of Brazilian agriculture. Global Change Biology, 22(8), 2887–2903.
Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hale, I. L., Wollheim, W. M., Smith, R. G., Asbjornsen, H., Brito, A. F., Broders, K., …, & Rowe, R. (2014). A scale-explicit framework for conceptualizing the environmental impacts of agricultural land use changes. Journal in Sustainability, 6(12), 8432–8451.
Jose, S. (2009). Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: An overview. Agroforestry Systems, 76, 1–10.
Khatiwada, S. P., Deng, W., Paudel, B., Khatiwada, J. R., Zhang, J., & Su, Y. (2017). Household livelihood strategies and implication for poverty reduction in rural areas of Central Nepal. Sustainability, 9(4), 612.
Kherallah, M., & Kirsten, J. F. (2001). The new institutional economics: Application for agricultural policy research in developing countries. Journal Agrekon, 41(2), 110–133.
[KPDT] Kementerian Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal. (2017). Peraturan Direktorat Jenderal Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal Nomor 126 Tahun 2017 tentang Penetapan prioritas sasaran pembangunan, pembangunan daerah tertinggal, dan transmigrasi. Jakarta: Kementerian Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal.
Lambin, E. F., Geist, H. J., & Lepers, E. (2003). Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review Environment Resources, 28(1), 205–241.
Martin, E., Suharjito, D., Darusman, D., Sunito, S., & Winarno, B. (2016). Etika subsistensi petani kopi: Memahami dinamika pengembangan agroforestri di dataran tinggi Sumatera Selatan. Jurnal Sodality IPB Bogor, 4(1).
Mehta, L., Leach, M., Newell, P., Scoones, I., Sivaramakrishnan, K., & Way, S. A. (1999). Exploring understandings of institutions and uncertainty: New directions in natural resource management. Retrieved from
Miettinen, J., Shi, C. & Liew, S. C. (2011). Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Biology, 17, 2261–2270.
Muttaqin, M. Z. (2013). Pengelolaan lahan dan hutan di Indonesia: Akses masyarakat lokal ke sumberdaya hutan dan pengaruhnya pada pembayaran jasa lingkungan. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perubahan Iklim dan Kebijakan, Kementerian Kehutanan.
Napitu, J, P., Hidayat, A., & Basuni, S., & Sjaf, S. (2017). Conflict of utilization and sustainable production forest management in forest management unit of meranti in South Sumatera. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 23(3), 158-170.
Nee, V. (2005). The new institutionalism in economics and sociology. In Smelser, S., Swedberg, R., eds., The Handbook of Economic Sociology. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Niemeijer, D., & Mazzucato, V. (2003). Moving beyond indigenous soil taxonomies: Local theories of soils for sustainable development. Geoderma, 111(3–4), 403–424.
North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nugrohowardhani, R. L. K. R. (2016). Sabana Sumba: Kelembagaan dan pembangunan ekonomi [dissertation]. Salatiga: Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana.
Oktalina, S. N., Awang, S. A., Suryanto, P., & Hartono, S (2015). Strategi petani hutan rakyat dan kontribusinya terhadap penghidupan di Kabupaten Gunung Kidul. Kawistara, 5(3), 221–328. Retrieved from
Paavola, J., & Adger, W. N. (2006). Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecological Economics, 56, 594–609.
Peng, W., Zheng, H., Robinson, B. E., Li, C, & Wang, F. (2016). Household livelihood strategy choices, impact factors, and environmental consequences in Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China. Sustainability, 9(2), 175.
Reubens, B., Moeremans, C., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., Tewoldeberhan, S., Franzel, S., & Muys, B. (2011). Tree species selection for land rehabilitation in Ethiopia: From fragmented knowledge to an integrated multi-criteria decision approach. Agroforestry Systems, 82, 303–330.
Rusinamhodzi, L., Corbeels, M., Nyamagara, J., & Giller, K. E. (2012). Maize-grain legume intertreeping is an attractive option for ecological intensification that reduces climatic risk for smallholder farmers in central Mozambique. Field Crop Research, 136, 12–22.
Rutherford, M. (2001). Institutional economics: Then and now. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(3), 173–194.
Saha, B., & Bahal, R. (2016). Livelihood diversification pursued by farmers in West Bengal. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, 10(2). Retrieved from
Salampessy, M. L., Bone, I., & Febryano, I. G. (2012). Performasi dusung pala sebagai salah satu agroforestri tradisional di Maluku. Tengkawan: Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 2(2), 55–65.
Scoones, I. (2001). Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. Institute of Development Studies Working Paper 72, Bringhton: IDS. Retrieved from
Walelign, S. Z. (2016). Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty: The case of two villages in rural Mozambique. Environment Development and Sustainability, 18(2), 593–613.
Wattimena, G. A. (2003). Agroforesti di Maluku. Prosiding PERMANA, 1(1), 213224. Retrieved from
Weaver, R. D., McMurphy, S. M., & Habibov, N. N. (2013). Analyzing the impact of bonding and bridging social capital on economic well-being: Results from Canada’s general social survey. Sociological Spectrum, 33, 566–583.
Wollenberg, E., Belcher, B., Sheil, D., Dewi, S., & Moeliono, M. (2004). Why are forest areas relevant to reducing poverty in Indonesia? Governance Brief. Bogor: CIFOR. Retrived from
Woolcock, M. (2000). Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(1), 151–208. Retrieved from
Wulandari, P. S. (2017). Strategi penghidupan berkelanjutan masyarakat petani berbasis aset (Kasus di Dusun Sumberawan, Toyomarto, Kecamatan Singosari, Kabupaten Malang) [thesis]. Malang: Universitas Brawijaya.
Yizengaw, Y. S., Okoyo, E. N., & Beyene, F. (2015). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies: The case of smallholder rural farm households in Debre Elias Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(19), 1998–2013.
Young, M. D., & Solbrig, O. T. (1992). Savanna management for ecological sustainability, economic profit and social equity. Retrieved from
Zomer, R. J., Trabucco, A., Coe, R., & Place, F. (2009). Trees on farm: Analysis of global extent and geographical patterns of agroforestry. ICRAF Working Paper No. 89. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Center. Retrieved from


Hendri Dony Hahury (Primary Contact)
Tity Susilowati Prabawa
Pamerdi Giri Wiloso
Tontji Soumokil
Marthen Luther Ndoen
Author Biographies

Tity Susilowati Prabawa, Development Studies of Interdisciplinary Faculty, Satya Wacana Christian University, Jl. Diponegoro No. 5260, Salatiga, Indonesia 50711

Fakultas Pascasarjana Interdisiplin

Jurusan Studi Pembangunan

Pamerdi Giri Wiloso, Development Studies of Interdisciplinary Faculty, Satya Wacana Christian University, Jl. Diponegoro No. 5260, Salatiga, Indonesia 50711

Fakultas Pascasarjana Interdisiplin

Jurusan Studi Pembangunan

HahuryH. D., PrabawaT. S., WilosoP. G., SoumokilT., & NdoenM. L. (2020). Institutional Impacts on Choice of Traditional Agroforestry-Based Rural Community Livelihood Strategies in Maluku: (Utilization of “Dusung” and Nutmeg in Booi Village, Maluku). Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 26(2), 189.

Article Details

The "Common Pool" Problems in the Protected Area Regarding Natural Tourism in Indonesia

Badi'ah, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Bramasto Nugroho, Bambang Supriyanto
Abstract View : 424
Download :22663

Implementation Gap of Social Forestry Policy: The Case of HKm Beringin Jaya and HTR Hajran

Budi, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Bramasto Nugroho, Rina Mardiana
Abstract View : 1324
Download :1105

Effects of Transfer of Right and Jurisdictional Boundary on Mining Reclamation Performance in East Kalimantan Forest Areas

Rina Kristanti, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Bramasto Nugroho, Irdika Mansur
Abstract View : 749
Download :18332