Effects of Competition on The Crown Width Allometry for Dominant Trees on Good Sites of Vegetative Clonal Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) in Java, Indonesia
The vegetative clonal teak is fast-growing, exhibits relatively uniform growth, and is sensitive to crown competition. The crown width dimension correlates positively with the size of the diameter (CW allometry). We investigated the effects of competition on CW allometry for dominant trees on good sites and the prediction accuracy of CW allometry. The data were measured during 2015–2017. The Hegyi index with a fixed 30° search cone method was used to measure competition. The scatter plot of all observations was used to identify the general pattern of CW over diameter, and competition index with both diameter and CW. The data were classified into three groups, ignored, free, and occurred competition data sets. Moreover, the occurred competition data set was categorized into three levels: low, medium, and heavy. The power model was used for parameterization of CW allometry. The dispersion of CW over diameter for all observations exhibited a moderate positive correlation, as well as the competition index with both diameter and CW. For the ignored-competition data set, the CW allometry was able to describe approximately 37.2% of observed CW. Interestingly, however, the prediction accuracy increased to 44.6% for the free competition data set. In contrast, the capability of the CW allometry for the occurred competition data set declined sharply to 9.1%. Among the occurred competition data sets, the heavier the subject trees competed, the lower the CW allometry explained the variations. However, the CW allometry was completely not able to describe the observed CW in the heavy competition level.
Campoe, O.C., Stape, J.L., Nouvellon, Y., Laclau, J.P., Bauerle, W.L., Binkley, D., & le Maire, G. (2013). Stem production, light absorption and light use efficiency between dominant and non-dominant trees of Eucalyptus grandis across a productivity gradient in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 14–20. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.035
Dahlhausen, J., Biber, P., Rötzer, T., Uhl, E., & Pretzsch, H. (2016). Tree species and their space requirements in six urban environments worldwide. Forests, 7(6), 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/f7060111
Fayed, T.B., El-Sarag, E.I., Hassanein, M.K., & Magdy, A. (2015). Evaluation and prediction of some wheat cultivars productivity in relation to different sowing dates under North Sinai region conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, 60(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.aoas.2014.12.001
Fu, L., Sun, H., Sharma, R.P., Lei, Y., Zhang, H., & Tang, S. (2013). Nonlinear mixed-effects crown width models for individual trees of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in South-Central China. Forest Ecology and Management, 302, 210–220. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.foreco.2013.03.036
Fu, L., Sharma, R.P., Wang, G., & Tang, S. (2017). Modelling a system of nonlinear additive crown width models applying seemingly unrelated regression for Prince Rupprecht larch in northern China. Forest Ecology and Management, 386, 71–80. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foreco.2016.11.038.
Goodman, R.C., Philips, O.L., & Baker, T.R. (2014). The importance of crown dimensions to improve tropical tree biomass estimates. Ecological Applications, 24(4), 680–698. https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0070.1
Hao, X., Yujun, S., Xinjie, W., Jin, W., & Yao, F. (2015). Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-Fir in Fujian province, Southeast China. PloS ONE, 10(4), e0122257. https://doi.org/10. 1371/journal.pone.0122257
Hayashi, K., Llorcaa, L., Rustini, S., Setyanto, P., & Zaini, Z. (2018). Reducing vulnerability of rainfed agriculture through seasonal climate predictions: A case study on the rainfed rice production in Southeast Asia. Agricultural Systems, 162, 66–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.agsy.2018.01.007
He, W., Yang, J.Y., Drury, C.F., Smith, W.N., Grant, B.B., He, P., Qian, B., Zhou, W., & Hoogenboom, G. (2018). Estimating the impacts of climate change on crop yields and N2O emissions for conventional and no-tillage in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Agricultural Systems, 159, 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017. 01.025
Hegyi, F. (1974). A simulation model for managing jack-pine stands. In Growth models for tree and stand simulation (J. Fries, ed.). Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm, pp. 74–90.
Höwler, K., Vor, T., Seidel, D., Annighöfer, P., & Ammer, C. (2019). Analyzing effects of intra‑ and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L.—from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research, 138, 327–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7
Huxley, J.S., & Teissier, G. (1936). Terminology of relative growth. Nature 137, 780–781. https://doi.org/10.1038/137780b0
Ibrahim, E.M., & Osman, E.H. (2014). Diameter at breast height-crown width prediction models for Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill & Perr and Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf. Journal of Forest Products & Industries, 3(4), 191–197.
Lei, Y., Fu, L., Affleck, D.L.R., Nelson, A.S., Shen, C., Wang, M., Zheng, J., Ye, Q., & Yang, G. (2018). Additivity of nonlinear tree crown width models: Aggregated and disaggregated model structures using nonlinear simultaneous equations. Forest Ecology and Management, 427, 372–382. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.foreco.2018.06.013
Lhotka, J.M., & Loewenstein, E.F. (2011). An individual-tree diameter growth model for managed uneven-aged oak-short leaf pine stands in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 261(3), 770–778.
Li, Z.T., Yang, J.Y., Smith, W.Z., Drury, C.F., Lemke, R.L., Grant, B., He, W.T., & Li, X.G. (2015). Simulation of long-term spring wheat yields, soil organic C, N and water dynamics using DSSAT-CSM in a semi-arid region of the Canadian prairies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 101, 401–419. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10705-015-9688-3
Pachas, N.A., Sakanphet, S., Soukkhy, O., Lao, M., Savathvong, S., Newby, J.C., Souliyasack, B., Keoboualapha, B., & Dieters, M.J (2019). Initial spacing of teak (Tectona grandis) in northern Lao PDR: Impacts on the growth of teak and companion crops. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.031
Pretzsch, H., Biber, P., Uhl, E., Dahlhausen, J., Rötzer, T., Caldentey, J. ... & Pauleit, S. (2015) Crown size and growing space requirement of common tree species in urban centres, parks, and forests. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(3), 466–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015. 04.006
Rahmadwiati, R., Sadono, R., Supriyatno, N. (2016) Preliminary stand table for average dominant trees of Jati Plus Perhutani in Saradan, Madiun, and Ngawi forest districs. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 22(1), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.22.1.57
Raptis, D., Kazana, V., Kazaklis, A., & Stamatiou, C. (2018). A crown width-diameter model for natural even-aged black pine forest management. Forest 9, 610. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100610
Russel, M.B., & Weiskittel, A.R. (2011). Maximum and largest crown width equations for 15 tree species in Maine. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 28(2):84–91.
Sadono, R., (2014), Determining competition level for high Genetic Value of Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) aged 6 to 11 years in Madiun Forest District, East Java, Indonesia. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(17), 750–756.
Sadono, R., Soepridjadi, D., Herningtyas, W., & Rachmadwiati R (2016). Growing space requirement, diameter and height growth of two generative teak clones in Perhutani-the Indonesia state forest enterprise. Advances in Environmental Biology, 10(4):239–259.
Sadono, R. (2018). Prediksi Lebar Tajuk Pohon Dominan pada Pertanaman Jati Asal Kebun Benih Klon di Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan Ngawi, Jawa Timur. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 12(2), 127–141. https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40143.
Sharma, R.P., Vacek, Z., & Vacek, S, (2016), Individual tree crown width models for Norway spruce and European beech in Czech Republic. Forest Ecology and Management, 366, 208–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.040
Sharma, R.P., Bilek, L., Vacek, Z., & Vacek, S. (2017). Modelling crown width-diameter relationship for Scots pine in the central Europe. Trees, 31, 1875–1889. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1593-8
Tenzin, J., Tenzin, K., & Hasenauer, H. (2017). Individual tree basal area increment models for broadleaved forests in Bhutan. Forestry, 90, 357–380. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/forestry/cpw065
Thorpe, H.C., Astrup, R., Trowbridge, A., & Coates, K.D. (2010). Competition and tree crowns: A neighborhood analysis of three boreal tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1586–1596. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foreco.2010.01.035
Yang, Y., & Huang, S. (2017). Allometric modelling of crown width for white spruce by fixed- and mixed-effects models. The Forestry Chronicle, 93, 138–147. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc2017-020
Yang, Y., & Huang, S. (2018). Effects of competition and climate variables on modelling height to live crown for three boreal tree species in Alberta, Canada. European Journal of Forest Research, 137, 153–167. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10342-017-1095-7
Zuhaidi, Y.A. (2013). Crown diameter prediction model for plantation grown Neolamarckia Cadamba. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 25(4), 446–453.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.