Trust Building to Coordinate Collective Action in Reforestation Program

Anna Indria Witasari


The study explores the way trust among agencies is established to coordinate collective action in rehabilitating protected areas, which have been utilized, commodified, and settled. Using an ethnography approach, the fieldwork was conducted in the villages surrounding 2 protected areas of West Lampung and South Lampung Districts in Lampung Province of Indonesia. There are several factors which hinder trust building process  i.e. past experiences in relation to eviction from protected areas, forest policies which are not consistent, forest status which is protected areas, and the attitude of forest officers which consider land users as has no responsibility for conservation. Among those factors, forest policies which discursively and materially incorporate trust-building are the main factors which may help forest land rehabilitation process. Trust building process through negotiation where prejudice is turned into understanding among agencies still offer the possibility for forest rehabilitation efforts in the context of commodified landscape, agrarian change, and migration. However, negotiation is established through 'give and take' mechanisms, trial and error, and a learning process. Landscape transformation where forest land rehabilitation occurs relies on the 'art' of 'negotiation' at a local level.


Agatha A. 2016. Traditional wisdom in land use and resource management among the Lugbara of Uganda: a historical perspective. SAGE Open 6(3):1–13. 1177/2158244016664562.

Barnes-Mauthe M, Gray SA, Arita S, Lynham J, Leung PS. 2014. What determines social capital in a social–ecological system? Insights from a network perspective. Environmental Management 55:392–410.

Brockington D, Wilkie D. 2015. Protected areas and poverty. Philisophical Transactions B 370: 20140271.

Burns TR. 2016. Sustainable development: agents, systems and the environment. Current Sociology Review 64(6):875–906. 737.

Campese J. 2009. Rights-based approaches to conservation: An overview of concepts and questions. In Campese J, Sunderland T, Greiber T, Oviedo G, editors. Rights-based approaches: Exploring issues and opportunities for conservation. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research.

Carr D. 2009. Population and deforestation: Why rural migration matters. Progress in Human Geography 33(3):355–378. 6031.

Elmhirst R. 2001. Resource struggles and the politics of place in North Lampung, Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 22(3):284–306. 1111/1467-9493.00111.

Escobar A. 2001. Culture sits in places: reflections on globalism and subaltern strategies of localization. Political Geography 20:139–174. 16/S0962-6298(00)00064-0.

Flick U. 2016. Mantras and myths: the disenchantment of mixed-methods research and revisiting triangulation as a perspective. Qualitative Inquiry 23(1):46–57. https://doi. org/10.1177/1077800416655827.

Fortun K. 2012. Ethnography in late industrialism. Cultural Anthropology 27(3):446–464. 1548-1360.2012.01153.x.

Gibson-Graham JK. 2016. 'After' area studies? Place-based knowledge for our time. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 34(5):799–806. 77/ 0263775816656523.

Handcock MS, Gile KJ. 2011. On the concept of snowball sampling. Sociological Methodology 41 (1):367–371.

Henry AD, Dietz T. 2011. Information, networks, and the complexity of trust in commons governance. International Journal of the Commons 5(2):188–212.

Hibbard M, Lane MB, Rasmussen K. 2008. The split personality of planning indigenous peoples and planning for land and resource management. Journal of Planning Literature 23(2):136–151. 412208322922.

Hugo G. 2008. Migration, Development, and Environment. IOM Migration Research Series No. 35. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Kern FG. 2016. The trials and tribulations of applied triangulation: weighing different data sources. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. (Online First).

Levang P, Sitorus S, Gaveau D, Sunderland T. 2012. Landless farmers, sly opportunists, and manipulated voters: The squatters of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Indonesia). Conservation and Society 10(3):243–255.

McMillan K. 2015. The critical bricolage: Uniquely advancing organizational and nursing knowledge on the subject of rapid and continuous change in health care. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 2015:1–8. 10.1177/1609406915611550.

Massey D. 2004. Geographies of responsibility. Geografiska Annaler 86B(1):5–18.

Moloney S. 2011. Focus groups as transformative spiritual encounters. International Journal of Qualitative Method 10(1):58–72. 0105.

Moore M. 2012. Natural resources, territorial right, and global distributive justice. Political Theory 40(1):84–107. 999.

Ouedraogo I, Savadogo P, Tigabu M , Cole R , Oden PC, Ouadba JM. 2009. Is rural migration a threat to environmental sustainability in southern Burkina Faso? Land Degradation & Development 20:217–230.

Pfadenhauer M, Grenz T. 2015. Uncovering the essence: the why and how of supplementing observation with participation in phenomenology-based ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44(5):598–616.

Pieczka M, Wood E. 2013. Action research and public relations: Dialogue, peer learning, and the issue of alcohol. Public Relations Inquiry 2(2):161–181.

Pretty J. 2003. Social capital and the collective management of resources. Science 302:1912–1915. 1126/science.1090847.

Putnam RD, Leonardi R, Nanetti RY. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ryan KE, Gandha T, Culbertson1 MJ, Carlson C. 2014. Focus group evidence: Implications for design and analysis. American Journal of Evaluation 35(3):328–345. 08300.

Schwab JR, Syed M. 2015. Qualitative inquiry and emerging adulthood: meta-theoretical and methodological issues. Emerging Adulthood 3(6):388–399. 77/2167696815587801.

Stanley L. 2016. Using focus groups in political science and international relations. Politics 36(3):236–249.

Stern MJ, Coleman KJ 2014. The multidimensionality of trust: applications in collaborative natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources 28:117–132. 5062.

Sukarame. 2002. Laporan Hasil Evaluasi Kegiatan. Sumberjaya: .
Tapscott R. 2012. Maximizing achievements in human rights development: arguments for a rights-based approach to land tenure reform. PRAXIS The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 27:26–46.

Watson TJ. 2011. Ethnography, reality, and truth: the vital need for studies of 'how things work' in organizations and management. Journal of Management Studies 48(1):202–217. 2010.00979.x.

Wise RD. 2009. Forced migration and US imperialism: the dialectic of migration and development. Critical Sociology 35(6):767–784.

Witasari A. 2010. Changing practices: Negotiation, identity and social capital in protected area management–Lampung, Indonesia [dissertation]. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Zommers Z, macDonald DW. 2012. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration. Conservation Biology 26(3):547–556. 2012.01846.x.


Anna Indria Witasari (Primary Contact)
WitasariA. I. (2017). Trust Building to Coordinate Collective Action in Reforestation Program. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 22(3), 192. Retrieved from

Article Details