RAGAM SKEMA SERTIFIKASI HUTAN GLOBAL DAN OPSI TRANSFORMASINYA DI INDONESIA
AbstractSaat ini ada tiga skema sertifikasi hutan sukarela (voluntary scheme) yang beroperasi di Indonesia, yakni skema Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certiﬁcation (PEFC), dan Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI). Selain itu ada pula skema Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK) yang sejak tahun 2009 diterapkan secara wajib (mandatory scheme) oleh pemerintah kepada seluruh produsen kayu bulat dan industri pengolahannya. Tulisan ini memetakan beragam skema sertifikasi dan opsi transformasinya di Indonesia yang mungkin diambil untuk menjaga eksistensinya dalam persaingan bisnis sertifikasi hutan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kecuali LEI, seluruh skema sertifikasi dan verifikasi memiliki kelompok pendukung yang solid, yakni FSC didukung oleh kelompok pelestarian lingkungan hidup; PEFC didukung oleh pengelola lahan hutan; dan SVLK didukung oleh pemerintah dan industri perkayuan nasional. Ketiga skema tersebut cenderung terfragmentasi dimana PEFC dan SVLK akan menjadi skema pro-produsen, dan FSC akan menjadi skema pro-lingkungan. Agar dapat bertahan dan berkembang, LEI disarankan bergabung dengan salah satu kelompok skema tersebut atau memperluas jangkauan sertifikasinya kepada produk berbasis sumberdaya alam hayati lainnya.
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