The Growth Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics of Dorper Sheep Treated by Corn Inclusion as Energy into Palm Kernel Cake Based-Diet

O. A. Saeed, A. Q. Sazili, H. Akit, A. R. Alimon, M. Mazlan, A. A. Samsudin

Abstract


This study investigated the effect of energy as partial replacement of a diet based on palm kernel cake (PKC) on the growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, carcass quality, and economic cost of Dorper sheep. Twenty-seven Dorper rams (initial body weight 15 ± 0.59 kg) were kept in individual pens and divided randomly into dietary groups consisting of T1: basal diet + 0% corn (control), T2: basal diet + 5% corn, and T3: basal diet + 10% corn. Feed intake was recorded on a daily basis. On day 110, 4 lambs from each group were randomly chosen and transferred into metabolism crates to determine nutrient digestibility and completely randomized design was used. The results showed that high feed intake was in T3 while, the DM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility were decreased significantly with the increasing level of corn as an energy source. The carcass cuts were not affected by the dietary treatments. Significant differences were noted in the non-carcass parts (heart, lungs and trachea, defattted kidneys, liver, spleen, and kidney fat) with T3 having the highest value. The feeding cost was slightly increased when PKC was replaced by corn. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% corn as a source of energy in 65.3% PKC as fattening diets had effects on growth BW, ADG, and organs performance on Dorper lambs.

Keywords


carcass characteristics; corn; digestibility; Dorper sheep; palm kernel cake

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alimon, A. 2004. The nutritive value of palm kernel cake for animal feed. Palm Oil Dev. 40: 12-14.

Allen, M.S. 1996. Physical constraints on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 3063-3075. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74123063x

AOAC. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Official methods of analysis. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.

Burrin, D., R. Britton, C. Ferrell, & M. Bauer. 1992. Level of nutrition and visceral organ protein synthetic capacity and nucleic acid content in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 1137-1145. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7041137x

Carpenter, K., I. McDonald, & W. Miller. 1972. Protein quality of feeding-stuffs: 5.* Collaborative studies on the biological assay of available methionine using chicks. Br. J. Nutr. 27: 7-17. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19720064

Dabiri, N. & M. Thonney. 2004. Source and level of supplemental protein for growing lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 3237-3244. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.82113237x

Davies, A. 1989. Growth changes in the meat carcass. Occasional Publication. 11: 61-72.

Department of Standards Malaysia. 2009. MS1500: 2009 (1st revision) Halal foodproduction, preparation, handling and storage-general guideline pp. 1-13.

dos Santos, R.d.C., D.I. Gomes, K.S. Alves, R. Mezzomo, L.R.S. Oliveira, D.O. Cutrim, S.B.M. Sacramento, E. de Moura Lima, & F.F.R. de Carvalho. 2017. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 30: 865. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0424

Fluharty, F. & K. McClure. 1997. Effects of dietary energy intake and protein concentration on performance and visceral organ mass in lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 604-610. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753604x

Gimenez, J.D.M. 1994. Nutrient requirements of sheep and goats. Circular ANR (USA).

Jelan, Z., Y. Ishak & T. Yaakub. 1991. Feedlotting of cattle on palm kernel cake in small holder farming system. Proc. 14th Ann. Conf. Malaysian Soc. Anim. Prod, pp. 99-102.

Kirton, A., P. Fourie, & K. Jury. 1972. Growth and development of sheep: III. Growth of the carcass and non-carcass components of the Southdown and Romney and their cross and some relationships with composition. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 15: 214-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1972.10421249

Kitessa, S., G. Irish, & P. Flinn. 1999. Comparison of methods used to predict the in vivo digestibility of feeds in ruminants. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50: 825-842. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR98169

Kumar, D. & A.N. Jhariya. 2013. Nutritional, medicinal and economical importance of corn: A mini review. Res. J. Pharm. Sci. 2: 7-8.

Lage, J., P. Paulino, L. Pereira, M. Duarte, S. Valadares Filho, A. Oliveira, N. Souza, & J. Lima. 2014. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat. Meat Sci. 96: 108-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.020

Lupton, C., J. Huston, J. Hruska, B. Craddock, F. Pfeiffer, & W. Polk. 2008. Comparison of three systems for concurrent production of high quality mohair and meat from Angora male kids. Small Rumin. Res. 74: 64-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.03.008

Marinova, P., V. Banskalieva, S. Alexandrov, V. Tzvetkova, & H. Stanchev. 2001. Carcass composition and meat quality of kids fed sunflower oil supplemented diet. Small Rumin. Res. 42: 217-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00245-0

Menke, K.H., & H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev. 28: 7-55.

Notter, D., S. Greiner, & M. Wahlberg. 2004. Growth and carcass characteristics of lambs sired by Dorper and Dorset rams. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 1323-1328. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251323x

Obeidat, B.S., A.Y. Abdullah, M.S. Awawdeh, R.T. Kridli, H.H. Titi, & R.I. Qudsieh. 2008. Effect of methionine supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi ram lambs fed finishing diets. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 21: 831. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70536

Ocak, S., S. Ogun, & O. Yilmaz. 2016. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 45: 489-498. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000800010

Onwudike, O. 1986. Palm kernel meal as a feed for poultry. 1. Composition of palm kernel meal and availability of its amino acids to chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 16: 179-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(86)90108-2

Poppi, D.P. & S. McLennan. 1995. Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 278-290. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.731278x

Rahman, M.M., R.B. Abdullah, W.K.W. Embong, T. Nakagawa, & R. Akashi. 2013. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 45: 873-878. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0300-4

Ribeiro, R.D.X., R.L. Oliveira, F.M. Macome, A.R. Bagaldo, M.C.A.d. Silva, C.V.D.M. Ribeiro, G.G.P.d. Carvalho, & D.P.D. Lanna. 2011. Meat quality of lambs fed on palm kernel meal, a by-product of biodiesel production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 24: 1399 – 1406.

Russell, J.R., D.D. Loy, J. Anderson, & M. Cecava. 2011. Potential of chemically treated corn stover and modified distiller grains as a partial replacement for corn grain in feedlot diets. Anim. Indust. Rep. 657: 10.

Sarwar, M., M.A. Khan, & Z. Iqbal. 2002. Status paper feed resources for livestock in Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 4: 186-192.

Sayed, A.-B.N. 2009. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the performance and nutrient digestibility of lambs. Vet. World. 2: 418-420.

Souza, D., A. Selaive-Villarroel, E. Pereira, J. Osório, & A. Teixeira. 2013. Growth performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of lambs produced from Dorper sheep crossed with Santa Inês or Brazilian Somali sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 114: 51-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.06.006

Terblanche, I.L., A.M. Mulder, L.P. Nel, & R. J.W. 1973. Inuence of crop feeding and supplementary feeding on weight gain and carcass grading of Dorper lambs (in Afrikaans), Agroanimalia, pp. 1-6.

Tipu, M., F. Ahmad, A. Khalique, M. Haque, R. Mirza, & U. Tayyab. 2014. Replacement of cotton seed cake with palm kernel cake in growing Nili-ravi buffalo male calves. J. Anim. Plant. Sci. 24: 24-27.

Van Niekerk, W. & K. Steenkamp. 1995. Comparison of three types of Dorper lambs (wool, hair and intermediate type) with regard to growth, feed and water intake, protein and fat metabolism. Dorper Sheep Breeders’ Society of South Africa, Middelburg, South Africa.

Van Soest, P.v., J. Robertson, & B. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy. Sci. 74: 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2

Wanapat, M. 2009. Potential uses of local feed resources for ruminants. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 41: 1035. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9270-y

Zahari, M.W. & A. Alimon. 2005. Use of palm kernel cake and oil palm by-products in compound feed. Palm Oil Dev. 40: 5-8.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5398/tasj.2018.41.1.29

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Tropical Animal Science Journal


Editorial Office

Tropical Animal Science Journal

Faculty of Animal Science Building, Bogor Agricultural University
Jln Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Phone/Fax.: +62-251-8421692
e-mail: mediapeternakan@yahoo.co.id; mediapeternakan@apps.ipb.ac.id
 
 
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.