Penentuan Dosis Optimum Pemupukan N, P, dan K pada Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench)

Ratna Suminar, . Suwarto, Heni Purnamawati

Abstract


Development of sorghum processing industries is essential in expanding sorghum market as wells as it’s an economic value. Fertilizer is needed in planting. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium availabilities are the most limiting factors for maximum growth and yield. Sorghum (Numbu Variety) was planted to evaluate the maximum and optimum rates of N, P, and K fertilizers. The research was conducted in Cikarawang field, Darmaga, Bogor from MarchJuly 2015 with multi-nutrient response method. Each experiment evaluated different rates of N, P, and K fertilizer with randomized complete block design and three replications. The fertilizer rates were 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of recommendation rate (100% N = 120 kg N ha-1, 100% P = 36 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 100% K = 90 kg K2O ha-1). The result showed relative yields of sorghum increased quadratically based on y = -0,0015x2 + 0,4011x + 67,571 for N, y = -0,0012x2 + 0,2917x + 78,457 for P2O5, and y = -0,001x2 + 0,2777x + 74,457 for K2O. The maximum rate for each nutrient was 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1. Fertilizer recommendation based on P threshold (no P) was 36,7-0,0-13,7 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, K threshold (no K) was 22,0-0,0-0,0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, and no fertilizer needed on N threshold. The optimum rate fertilizer based on the yield vs. cost rule, therefore, the most economical recommendation would be 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1.

Keywords


maximum; relative yield; threshold rate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agustina K, Sopandie D, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Wirnas D. 2010. Tanggap fisiologi akar sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) terhadap cekaman alumunium dan defisiensi fosfor di dalam rhizotron. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 38(2): 88-94.

Akram A, Fatima M, Ali S, Jilani G, Asghar R. 2007. Growth, yield and nutrients uptake of sorghum in respons do integrated phosporus and potassium management. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39(4): 1083-1087.

Darman S. 2008. Ketersediaan dan serapan hara P tanaman jagung manis pada oxicdysturudepts palolo akibat pemberian ekstrak kompos limbah buah kakao. Agroland. 15(4): 323-329.

Fahmi A, Syamsudin, Utami SNH, Radjagukguk B. 2010. Pengaruh interaksi hara nitrogen dan fosfor terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.) pada tanah regosol dan latosol. Berita Biologi. 10(3): 297-304.

Fanindi A, Yunaeni S, Wahyu. 2005. Pertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman sorgum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench dan Sorghum sudanense (piper) Stafp) yang mendapatkan kombinasi pemupukan N, P, K, dan Ca. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. 872-878.

Ishak M, Sudirja R, Ismail A. 2012. Zonasi kesesuaian lahan untuk pengembangan tanaman sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) di Kab Sumedang berdasar analisis geologi, penggunaan lahan, iklim dan topografi. Bionatura-Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Hayati dan Fisik. 14(3): 173-183.

Jabri MA. 2007. Perkembangan uji tanah dan strategi program uji tanah masa depan di Indonesia. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian. 26(2): 54-66.

Jannah UF, Purwoko BS, Susila AD. 2011. Penetapan dosis pupuk N, P, dan K pada terubuk (Saccharum edule). Kemandirian produk hortikultura untuk memenuhi pasar domestik dan ekspor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia; 2011 November 23-24; Lembang, Indonesia. Bogor (ID): IPB Press. 253-262.

Koten BB, Soetrisno RD, Ngadiyono N, Suwignyo B. 2012. Produksi tanaman sorgum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench varietas lokal ode sebagai hijauan pakan ruminansia pada umur panen dan dosis pupuk urea yang berbeda. Buletin Peternakan. 36(3): 150-155. http://doi.org/b4pj

Lestari SAD, Melati M, Purnamawati H. 2015. Penentuan dosis pemupukan N, P, dan K pada tanaman kacang Bogor (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdcourt). Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 43(3): 193-200.

Lumbantobing ELN, Hazra F, Anas I. 2008. Uji efektivitas bio organic fertilizer (pupuk organik hayati) dalam mensubstitusi kebutuhan pupuk anorganik pada tanaman sweet sorgum. Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan. 10(2): 72-76.

Marlina, Zuhry E, Nurbaiti. 2015. Aplikasi tiga dosis pupuk fosfor pada empat varietas sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) dalam meningkatkan komponen hasil dan mutu fisiologis benih. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian. 2(2). 14 hlm. jom.unri.ac.id.

Maschner P. 2012. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Third Edition. San Diego (US): Academic Press Inc.

Munawar A. 2011. Kesuburan Tanah dan Nutrisi Tanaman. Bogor (ID): IPB Press.

Parsons R, Sunley RJ. 2001. Nitrogen nutrition and the role of root-shoot nitrogen signalling particularly in symbiotic System. Journal of Experimental Botany. 52(1): 435-443.

Patti PS, Kaya E, Silahooy Ch. 2013. Analisis status nitrogen tanah dalam kaitannya dengan serapan N oleh tanaman padi sawah di Desa Waimital, Kecamatan Kairatu, Kabupaten Seram Bagian Barat. Jurnal Ilmu Budidaya Tanaman. 2(1): 51-58.

Sastrosupadi A. 2010. Rancangan Percobaan Praktis Bidang Pertanian. Yogyakarta (ID): Kanisius.

Suarni. 2004. Pemanfaatan tepung sorgum untuk produk olahan. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian. 23(4): 145-151.

Sucipto. 2010. Efektivitas cara pemupukan terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil beberapa varietas sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). Embryo. 7(2): 67-74.

Susila AD, Kartika JG, Prasetyo T, Palada MC. 2010. Fertilizer recommendation: correlation and calibration study of soil P test for yard long ban (Vigna unguilata L.) on ultisols in Nanggung-Bogor. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 38(3): 225-231.

Sutrisna N, Sunandar N, Anas Z. 2013. Uji adaptasi beberapa varietas sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L.) pada lahan kering di Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal. 2(2): 137-143.

Turmudi E. 2010. Respon pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman sorgum terhadap frekuensi dan dosis pupuk nitrogen. Biofarm Jurnal Ilmiah Pertanian. 13(9): 11-24.

Wachjar A, Sutidjo D, Bahri S.1994. Pengaruh pupuk fosfor dan kalium terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil benih kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Pada Tanah Latosol. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 22(1): 36-47.

Waugh DL, Cate RB, Nelson LA. 1973. Discontinuous model for rapid correlation, interpretation, and utilization of soil analysis and fertilizer response data. Technical Buletin 7. 106 hlm.

Weston LA, Alsaadawi IS, Baerson SR. 2013. Sorghum allelopathy-from ecosystem to molecule. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39(2): 142-153. http://doi.org/f4rq5b

Wijaya KA, Soeparjono S. 2014. Efek suplai nitrogen terhadap kadar gula nira tebu varietas bululawang. Jurnal Agritrop. 12(2): 109-112.

Zhou Q, Liang D, Deng A, Zhang J, Wu C, Nie Z, Jiang J, Wang Y. 2013. Antitussive, expectorant and bronchodilating effects of ethanol extract of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149(1): 297-302. http://doi.org/f49k7s




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.22.1.6

View JIPI Stats

 

   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email: jipi-lppm@apps.ipb.ac.id; jipi-lppm@ipb.ac.id