Land Acquisition, Peasant Exclusion, and People Resistance Advocacy at Bolok Industrial Area in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

  • Didimus Dedi Dhosa Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Katolik Widya Mandira
Keywords: Bolok Industrial Area, land acquisition, social exclusion

Abstract

This study aims to investigate industrial development project by corporations facilitated by the government of East Nusa Tenggara Province. The government argues that the development of Bolok Industrial area can open workforce, elevate the welfare of citizens, and reduce the poverty index. This research was conducted from February to July 2019. Data collection techniques are indepth interview, focus group discussion, and participant observation.  By using a critical qualitative approach and a Marxian analysis of land acquisition and capital accumulation, this paper finds four urgent things. Firstly, people’s land is grabbed by corporations with government’s support. Secondly, the acquisition is carried out with the politics of 'lure' and 'tourism' to the island of Java. Thirdly, land acquisition causes inequality in land tenure and exclusion of farmers from their arable land. Fourthly, advocacy of critical awareness by various actors becomes less effective when important actors in society have been co-opted by corporations which resulted in conquering to the masses. The government of NTT Province must reconsider the development of an industrial area if they don’t want local people to be trapped in the poverty circle and ecological destruction.

References

Anderson, Benedict R. and Ruth T. McVey. 2017. Kudeta 1 Oktober 1965: Sebuah Analisis Awal. Yogyakarta: Gading.

Bere, Sigiranus Marutho. 2017a. “Perusahaan China Siapkan Dana Besar Untuk Investasi Energi Di NTT.” Kompas.Com. Retrieved September 9, 2019 (https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2017/09/12/103524926/perusahaan-china-siapkan-dana-besar-untuk-investasi-energi-di-ntt).

Bere, Sigiranus Marutho. 2017b. “Perusahaan Energi Swasta Investasi Rp. 1,5 Triliun Di Kupang.” Kompas.Com. Retrieved September 9, 2019 (https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2017/08/28/200000926/perusahaan-energi-swasta-investasi-rp-1-5-triliun-di-kupang).

Bernstein, Henry, Byress, Terence J, Borras Saturnino, Kay Christobal. 2008. Kebangkitan Studi Reforma Agraria Di Abad 21. Yogyakarta: Sekolah Tinggi Pertanahan Nasional.

Borras Jr., Saturnino M., Ruth Hall, Ian Scoones, Ben White, and Wendy Wolford. 2011. “Towards a Better Understanding of Global Land Grabbing: An Editorial Introduction.” Journal of Peasant Studies 38(2):209–16.

Borras Jr., Saturnino M., Cristóbal Kay, and A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi. 2008. “Reforma Agraria Dan Pembangunan Pedesaan: Tinjauan Historis Dan Isu-Isu Mutakhir.” in Kebangkitan Studi Reforma Agraria di Abad 21, edited by H. Bernstein, T. J. Byress, S. M. Borras Jr., and C. Kay. Yogyakarta: STPN Press.

Borras, Saturnino M., Cristóbal Kay, Sergio Goḿez, and John Wilkinson. 2012. “Land Grabbing and Global Capitalist Accumulation: Key Features in Latin America.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 33(4):402–16.

BPS. 2018. “Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur.”

Christian, Yoppie, Arif Satria, and Satyawan Sunito. 2018. “Ekonomi Politik Konflik Agraria Pulau Kecil (Studi Kasus Di Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta).” Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan 6(1):71–78.

Cribb, R. 2016. The Indonesian Killings: Pembantaian PKI Di Jawa Dan Bali 1965-1966. edited by Robert Cribb. Yogyakarta: Matabangsa.

Dale, Cipry Jehan Paju. 2013. Kuasa, Pembangunan Dan Pemiskinan Sistemik: Analisis Kontra-Hegemoni Dengan Fokus Studi Kasus Di Manggarai Raya, NTT, Indonesia. Labuan Bajo: Sunspirit Books.

Darmawan, Alwin and Heru A. Lastiadi. 2010. “Geologi Lingkungan Dan Fenomena Kars Sebagai Arahan Pengembangan Wilayah Perkotaan Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur.” Jurnal Lingkungan Dan Bencana Geologi 1(1):11–26.

Dasion, Agustinus Gregorius Raja. 2019. “Merebut Paus Di Laut Sawu: Konflik Kepentingan Konservasi Paus Antara Negara Dan Masyarakat Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur.” Jurnal Pemikiran Sosiologi 6(1):41–57.

Dhosa, Didimus Dedi. 2017. “Akumulasi Kapital, Penghancuran Gerakan Kiri, Dan Kemiskinan Di Nusa Tenggara Timur.” Jurnal Pemikiran Sosiologi 4(2):19–35.

Erb, Maribeth. 2016. “Mining and the Conflict over Values in Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Eastern Indonesia.” Extractive Industries and Society 3(2):370–82.

Fakih, Mansour. 2013. Runtuhnya Teori Pembangunan Dan Globalisasi. Yogyakarta: Insist Press dan Pustaka Pelajar.

Femia, Joseph V. 1981. Gramsci’s Political Thought: Hegemony, Conseciousness, and the Revolutionary Process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

GRAIN. 2008. “SEIZED: The 2008 Landgrab for Food and Financial Security.” Retrieved September 18, 2019 (https://www.grain.org/article/entries/93-seized-the-2008-landgrab-for-food-and-financial-security).

Harvey, David. 2003. The New Imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harvey, David. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Haryanto, Venansius. 2019. “Development, Depoliticisation, and Manggaraian Peasants’ Resistance in Western Flores.” PCD Journal 7(1):115–38.

Lewanmeru, Oby. 2019. “Masyarakat Adat Kuanheum Mengadu Masalah Lahan Ke Gubernur NTT.” Retrieved September 18, 2019 (https://kupang.tribunnews.com/2019/09/18/masyarakat-adat-kuanheum-mengadu-masalah-lahan-ke-gubernur-ntt).

Li, Tania Muray. 2011. “Centering Labor in the Land Grab Debate.” Journal of Peasant Studies 38(2):281–98.

Li, Tania Murray. 2009. “Exit from Agriculture: A Step Forward or a Step Backward for the Rural Poor?” Journal of Peasant Studies 36(3):629–36.

Marx, Karl. 2004. Kapital I: Sebuah Kritik Ekonomi Politik. Jakarta: Hasta Mitra.

Munggoro, Dani W. and Andy Armansyah. 2008. Menjadi Environmentalis Itu Gampang! Sebuah Panduan Bagi Pemula. Jakarta: WALHI.

Peet, Richard. 2009. Unholy Trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO. London - New York: Zed Books.

Pujiriyani, Dwi Wulan, Endriatmo Soetarto, Dwi Andreas Santosa, dan Ivanovich Agusta. 2018. “Deagrarianization and Livelihood Dislocation of Peasant Community in Rural Java.” Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan 6(2):137–45.

Rachman, Noer Fauzi. 2017a. Land Reform Dan Gerakan Agraria Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Insist Press.

Rachman, Noer Fauzi. 2017b. Petani Dan Penguasa: Dinamika Perjalanan Politik Agraria Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Insist Press.

Regus, Maximus. 2011. “Tambang Dan Perlawanan Rakyat: Studi Kasus Tambang Di Manggarai, NTT.” MASYARAKAT: Jurnal Sosiologi 16(1):1–26.

Suwarsono and Alvin Y. So. 1994. Perubahan Sosial Dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Tolo, Emilianus Yakob Sese. 2016. “Akumulasi Melalui Perampasan Dan Kemiskinan Di Flores.” MASYARAKAT: Jurnal Sosiologi 21(2):173–204.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washingon, DC: World Bank.

Wuryandari, Ganewati. 2014. Pengembangan Wilayah Nusa Tenggara Timur Dari Perspektif Sosial: Permasalahan Dan Kebijakan. edited by G. Wuryandari. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Yaffe, Helen. 2015. Ekonomi Revolusi Che Guevara. Serpong: Marjin Kiri.

Yusuf, Muhammad. 2013. “Transisi Agraria Dan Ketenagakerjaan Pedesaan: Studi Kasus Akuisisi (Perampasan Tanah Untuk Pangan-Energi Dan Peluang Bekerja Pemuda Di Pedesaan Indonesia.” Studi Pemuda 2(1):45–62.

Zoomers, Annelies. 2010. “Globalisation and the Foreignisation of Space: Seven Processes Driving the Current Global Land Grab.” Journal of Peasant Studies 37(2):429–47.

Published
2019-12-31
Section
Articles