Creating Strategic Competence of Independent Smallholders for Sustainable Palm Oil

Keywords: Independent Smallholders, River Diagram, Stairs Diagram, Strategic Competence, Sustainability

Abstract

Penelitian dilakukan di kabupaten perbatasan melalui wawancara mendalam terhadap 120 petani swadaya dalam kerangka Minyak Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan Indonesia (Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil/ISPO), mencakup aspek hukum, pengelolaan dan pemantauan lingkungan, organisasi petani dan aspek manajemen untuk mewujudkan kompetensi strategis menggunakan diagram sungai dan diagram tangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa target inisiatif kinerja kompetensi terkait aspek legalitas dan manajemen lingkungan serta aspek pengawasan adalah mempelajari dan menerima praktik pengetahuan secara bertahap dalam semua kelompok petani, termasuk pengetahuan terkait tindakan pencegahan dan pengendalian kebakaran dan peningkatan bisnis secara berkelanjutan. Selain itu, target inisiatif kinerja kompetensi terkait aspek pencegahan dan pengendalian kebakaran dan keanekaragaman hayati adalah menerima transfer pengetahuan. Namun, daerah yang memiliki kompetensi lebih tinggi atau kesenjangan kompetensi yang lebih rendah dapat menjadi penyedia penerima pengetahuan dengan mempertimbangkan adopsi teknologi dan metode motivasi yang sesuai. Oleh karena itu, upaya mengatasi pengetahuan dan kompetensi petani rendah atau kesenjangan yang tinggi antara pengetahuan dan kompetensi dilakukan dengan pendekatan menangkap pengetahuan dengan cara memastikan bahwa semua petani belajar dan dapat mengakses layanan dan inovasi; dan pendekatan berbagi pengetahuan melalui program pendidikan dan pelatihan, praktik budidaya yang tepat, sertifikasi, dan kemitraan dengan universitas, perusahaan, pemerintah dan masyarakat.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Nurliza Nurliza, Tanjungpura University
Agribusiness Department, Agricultural Faculty

References

Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). Interviewing as a data collection method: A critical review. English Linguistics Research. 3(1), 39-45.

Anwar, M. R., Liu, D. L., Macadam, I., & Kelly, G. (2013). Adapting agriculture to climate change: A review. Theor Appl Climato. 113, 225–245.

Baloch, M. A., & Thapa, G. B. (2016). The effect of agricultural extension services: Date farmers’ case in Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 05(7). doi: org/10.1016/j.jssas.2016.05.007.

Baloch, M. A., & Thapa, G. B. (2019). Review of the agricultural extension modes and services with the focus to Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 18(2) , 188-194.

Baloyi, J. K. (2010). An Analysis of Constraints Facing Smallholder Farmers in The Agribusiness Value Chain: A Case Study of Farmers in The Limpopo Province.Pretoria(South Africa): University of Pretoria.

Barham, J., & Chitemi, C. (2009). Collective Action Initiatives to Improve marketing Performance: Lesso from Farmer Groups in Tanzania. Food policy, 34(1) , 53-59.

Basiron, Y. (2007). Palm oil production through sustainable plantations. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 109(4), 289–295.

Bayani, A., Tiwade, D., Dongre, A., Dongre, A. P., Phatak, R., & Watve, M. (2016). Assessment of crop damage by protected wild mammalian herbivores on the western boundary of Tadoba- Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India. PLoS One 11(4), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153854.

Cazzola, P., Morrison, G., Kaneko, H., Cuenot, F., Ghandi, A., & Fulton, L. (2013). Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels: Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity. Paris (FR): The International Energy Agency.

Cramb, R. A., & Sujang, P. S. (2012). Pathways through the Plantation: Oil Palm Smallholders and Livelihood Strategies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The 56th AARES annual conference, February 7th- 10th, 2012 (p. 1-30). Fremantle, Western (AU): Australian Agricultural & Resource Economics Society.

Daemeter-Consulting. (2015). Overview of Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholder Farmers: A Typology of Organizational Models, Needs, and Investment Opportunities. Bogor (ID): Daemeter Consulting.

Euler, M., Hoffmann, M. P., Fathoni, Z., & Schwarze, S. (2016). Exploring yield gaps in smallholder oil palm production systems in Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Agricultural Systems. 146, 111-119.

, Krishna, V., Schwarze, S., Siregar, H., & Qaim, M. (2017). Oil palm adoption, household welfare, and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Indonesia. World Development. 93, 219- 235.

, Schwarze, S., Siregar, H., & Qaim, M. (2015). Oil Palm Expansion Among Smallholder. Göttingen(Germany): EFForTS, Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems.

FAO. (2012). Agricultural cooperatives: paving the way for food security and rural development.

Rome, Italy (IT): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Feintrenie, L., Chong, W. K., & Levang, P. (2010). Why do farmers prefer oil palm? Lessons learnt from Bungo district, Indonesia. Bogor (ID): Center for International Forestry Research.

Francesconi, G. N., & Wouterse, F. (2015). Promoting the role of farmer-based organizations for value chain integration: The tension between a program's targeting and an organization's investment strategy. Agricultural Economics. 46(4), 527–536.

Gaveau, D. L., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Yaen, H., Sheil, D., Abram, N. K., et al. (2014). Four Decades of Forest Persistence, Clearance and Logging on Borneo. PLoS ONE, 9(7) , 1-11.

Glendenning, C. J., Babu, S., & Asenso, K. (2010). Review of Agricultural Extension in India: Are Farmers’ Information Needs Being Met? Washington (US): International Food Policy Research Institute.

Goldstein, J. O. (2016). Knowing the subterranean: Land grabbing, oil palm, and divergent expertise in Indonesia’s peat soil. Environment and Planning A. 48(4), 754-770.

Hellin, J., Lundy, M., & Meijer, M. (2007). Farmer organisation and market access.Leisa Magazine (Netherlands), 23(1) , 26-27.

Hong Yun, H., & Lian Ge, Z. (2009). Farmer characters’ and behaviour of fertilizer application- Evidence from a survey of Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China. Agricultural Sciences in China. 8(10), 1238-1245.

Huan, L. K., Lim, S. S., Parish, F., & Suharto, R. (2012). RSPO Manual on Best Management Pratices (BMP's) for Existing Oil Palm Cultivation on Peat. Kuala Lumpur (--): RSPO.

Islam, I., Hoque, M. J., Momen Miah, M. A., & Sheheli, S. (2013). Competency assessment of the farmers on the apllication of one house one farm approach. Progress. Agric. 24(1&2), 291-299.

IDH. (2017). Transforming Agriculture Business Models To Improve Profitability And Livelihoods: A breakthrough in smallholder engagement. The Netherland: IDH the Sustainable Trade Initiative. INOBU. (2016). A Profile of Oil Palm Smallholders and Their Challenges of Farming Independently.

San Francisco, California (US): Institut Penelitian Inovasi Bumi.

Jan, I., Khan, H., & Jalalu, M. (2008). Analysis of agricultural extension system: A discrepancy between provider and recipients of the extension services empirical evidence from North-West Pakistan. Sarhad J. Agric. 24(2), 349-354.

Jelsma, I., Schoneveld, G. C., Zoomers, A., & A., C. v.(2017). Unpacking Indonesia’s independent oil palm smallholders: An actordisaggregated approach to identifying environmental and social performance challenges. Land Use Policy. 69, 281–297.

Joseph, S. (2013). Blame It on the WTO? A Human Rights Critique. Oxford (GB): Oxford University Press.

Kahan, D. (2013). The role of the Farm Management Specialist in Extension. Rome (IT): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Krishna, V. V., Pascual, U., & Qaim, M. (2014). Do emerging land markets promote forestland appropriation? Evidence from Indonesia. Goettingen (--): EFForTS Discussion Paper 7, Georgia University of Goettingen.

Kuipers, A., Rozstalnyy, A., & Keane, G. (2014). Cattle Husbandry in Eastern Europe and China: Structure, Development Paths and Optimisation. The Netherlands (--): Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Kumar, V., Wankhede, K. G., & Gena, H. C. (2015). Role of cooperatives in improving livelihood of farmers on sustainable basis. American Journal of Educational Research. 3(10), 1258-1266

Lee, J. H., Nam, S. K., Kim, A.‐R., Kim, B., Lee, M., & Lee, S. M. (2013). Resilience: A Meta‐Analytic Approach. Journal of counseling and development, 91(3) , 269-279.

Lim, S. S., Vos, T., Flaxman, A. D., Danaei, G., Shibuya, K., Adair-Rohani, H., et al. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380 , 2224–2260.

Mack, N., Woodsong, C., MacQueen, K. M., Quest, G., & Namey, E. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide. North Carolina (US): Family Health International.

Mat Sharif, Z. B., Mohd Taib, N. B., Yusof, M. S., Rahim, M. Z., Mohd Tobi, A. L., & Othman, M. S. (2017). Study on handing process and quality degradation of oil palm fresh fruit bunches. Mechanical Engineering, Science and Technology International Conference. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 203: 1-10.

Montedo, U. B., & Abrahão, J. I. (2015). The process of developing new competences: A case study at a family agricultural production unit. Production. 25(2), 336-343.

Munthali, K. G., & Murayama, Y. (2013). Interdependences between smallholder farming and environmental management in Rural Malawi: A case of agriculture-induced environmental degradation in Malingunde Extension Planning Area (EPA). Land. 2, 158-175.

Nesheim, I., Barkved, L., & Bharti, N. (2017). What is the role of agro-met information services in farmerdecision-making? Uptake and decision-making context among farmers within three case study villages in Maharashtra, India. Agriculture. 7(70), 1-16.

Nurliza, N., & Dolorosa, E. (2017). Effect relationships on sustainable development of palm oil production for independent smallholder farmers toward sustainable. Journal of Sustainable Development. 10(1), 24-33.

Obert, S., Stewart, M., & Desderio, C. M. (2015). Towards improving service delivery in local authorities. A case of Chegutu Municipality in Zimbabwe.

OSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 20(11), 55.

Odini, S. (2014). Access to and use of agricultural information by small scale women farmers in support of efforts to attain food security in Vihiga County, Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences. 5(2), 80-86.

Odongo, D. (2014). Agricultural information access among smallholder farmers: Comparative assessment of peri-urban and rural settings in Kenya. Agricultural Information Worldwide.6: 133-137.

OECD. (2005). Integrated Environmental Permitting Guidelines For Eecca Countries. Paris (FR): Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

. (2007). Small business and Environmental Compliance:Review and Possible Application of International Experience in Georgia. Paris (FR): Organization for Economic Cooperationand Development.

Pe’er, G., Zinngrebe, Y., Hauck, J., Schindler, S., Dittrich, A., Zingg, S.(2016). Adding some green to the greening: Improving the EU’s Ecological Focus Areas for biodiversity and farmers. Conserv. Lett. 10(5),517-530.

Penunia, E. A. (2011). The Role of Farmers’ Organizations in Empowering and Promoting the Leadership of Rural Women. Accra (GH): UN Women in cooperation with FAO, IFAD and WFP.

Rojo, M. S., Moratalla, A. Z., Alonso, N. M., & Jimenez, V. H. (2014). Pathways towards the integration of periurban agrarian ecosystems into the spatial planning system. Ecological Processes. 3(13), 1-16.

RSPO. (2016). RSPO Smallholders Definition. http://www.rspo.org/smallholders/rspo-smallholders- definition.

Salmiyati, Heryansyah, A., Idayu, I., & Supriyanto, E. (2014). Oil palm plantations management effects on productivity fresh fruit bunch. APCBEE Procedia. 8, 282-286.

Saswattecha, K., Hein, L., Kroeze, C., & Jaujit, W. (2016). Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. 12(4), 291-313.

Shepherd, A. W. (2007). Approaches to Linking Producers to Markets: A Review of Experiences to Date. Rome (IT): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Shiferaw, B. A., Obare, G. A., Geoffrey, M., & Silim, S. (2009). Leveraging institutions for collective action to improve markets for smallholder producers in less-favored areas. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 3(1) , 1-18.

Sugiyono. (2003). Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Bandung (ID): Alfabeta.

Taddese, A. B. (2013). Potential Impact of Land Certiification on Households' Land-Related Investment Intentions in Southern Ethiopia. Norwegia (Norway): Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

Tham-Agyekum, E. K., Appiah, P., & Nimoh, F. (2010). Assessing farm record keeping behaviour among small-scale poultry farmers in the Ga East Municipality. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2(4), 52-62.

Tripp, R., & Longley, C. (2006). Self-sufficient Agriculture: Labour and Knowledge in Small-scale Farming. London (GB): Earthscan.

Turner, D. W. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. The Qualitative Report. 15(3), 754-760.

UNSDSN. (2013). An Action Agenda for Sustainable Development:. New York, United States: The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).

van der Enden, S. (2013). Smallholders and Sustainable Palm Oil Production: A Better Understanding between Policy Arrangements and Real-Life Practices. Rotterdam (Netherlands): Wageningen University and Research Centre.

Varkkey, H. (2015). The Haze Problem in Southeast Asia: Palm Oil and Patronage. London (GB): Routledge.

Veloo, R., van Ranst, E., & Selliah, P. (2015). Proper understanding of oil palm development on peatland is required to achieve the implementation of sustainable practice in oil palmoperation. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. 72-73, 33-40.

Vijay, V., Pimm, S. L., Jenkins, C. N., & Smith, S. J. (2016). The impacts of oil palm on recent deforestation and biodiversity loss. PLoS ONE. 11(7).doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159668.

Vik, J., & Stræte, E. P. (2017). Embedded Competence: A Study of Farmers’ Relation to Competence and Knowledge. System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks.2017 (p. 392-403). Trondheim (Norway): Centre for Rural Research,.

Wheeler, D., Hammer, D., Kraft, R., & Dasgupta, S. (2013). Economic dynamics and forest clearing: A spatial econometric analysis for Indonesia. Ecological Economics. 85, 85-96.

Wild, L., Chambers, V., King, M., & Ha, D. (2012). Common constraints and incentive problems in service delivery. London(GB): Overseas Development Institute.

Woittiez, L. S., van Wijk, M. T., Slingerland, M., van Noordwijk, M., & Giller, K. E. (2017). Yield gaps in oil palm: A quantitative review of contributing factors. European Journal of Agronomy, 83 , 57-77.

Woolverton, A., & Neven, D. (2014). Understanding Smallholder Farmer Attitudes to Commercialization. Rome (IT): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Wordofa, M. G., & Sassi, M. (2014). Improving Smallholder Farmers’ Income through Farmer Training Centers: An Impact Evaluation in Haramaya District, Ethiopia. Pavia (IT): Natural Resources, Agricultural Development and Food Security- International Research Network.Wild et.al., 2012;

Wulandari, E., Meuwissen, M. P., Karmana, M. H., & Oude Lansink, A. (2017). Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements. PLoS ONE. 12(9).doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179285.

Yves, Z., Pe’er, G., Schueler, S., Schmitt, J., Schmidt, J., & Lakner, S. (2017). The EU’s ecological focus areas–How experts explain farmers’ choices in Germany. Land Use Policy. 65, 93-108

Published
2020-03-22