Modeling The Habitat Suitability of Dare Monkey (Macaca maura Hr Schinz 1825) in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi

gede tragya suartika pramana, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, Entang Iskandar


Sulawesi Island is the center of the Wallacea area which has high biodiversity and is inhabited by several endemic species of plants and animals, one of which is the dare monkey (Macaca maura HR Schinz 1825). This study aims to analyze habitat suitability and the effect of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of dare monkeys in the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park area. This research was conducted through the development of a species distribution approach model using Maxent ver 3.4.4. The results showed that the AUC value of the dare monkey habitat suitability model was 0.893 with a standard deviation of ±0.015 which is a feasible predictive model with suitable habitat area is 138.43 km2 (20%) and not suitable 538.44 km2 (80%). The suitable habitat area is divided into 3 classes, namely the low suitability class 90.11 km2 (65%), the medium suitability class 25.58 km2 (18%) and the high suitability class 22.74 km2 (16%). while the environmental variables that play a role and affect the presence of dare monkeys are land cover (35.1%), distance from the road (32.2%), distance from agricultural areas (13.1%), distance from rivers (12.1%), slope (3.6%), altitude (2.6%) and temperature (1


Albani A, Cutini M, Germani L, Riley EP, Ngakan PO, Carosi M. 2020. Activity budget, home range, and habitat use of moor macaques (Macaca maura) in the karst forest of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primates. 61: 673–684. doi:10.1007/s10329-020-00811-8
Astriani WI, Arief H, Prasetyo LB. 2015. Populasi dan habitat lutung jawa (Trcyphitecus auratus e. Geoffrey 1812) di resort balanan, taman nasonal baluran. Media Konservasi. 20(3): 226-234. doi: 10.29244/medkon.20.3.%25p
Beltrán Francés V, Spaan D, Amici F, Maulany RI, Putu Oka N, Majolo B. 2022. Effect of anthropogenic activities on the population of moor macaques (Macaca maura) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology. 43(2):339-359. doi: 10.1007/s10764-022-00279-x
Elith J, Phillips SJ. Hastie T, Dudik M, Chee YE, Yates CJ. 2011. A statistical explanation of Maxent for ecologists. Diversity and Distributions. 17: 43–57. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00725.x
Fielding AH, Bell JF. 1997. A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environmental Conservation. 24(1):38–49. doi:10.1017/s0376892997000088
Fotang C, Bröring U, Roos C, Enoguanbhor EC, Abwe EE, Dutton P, Birkhofer K. 2021. Human Activity and Forest Degradation Threaten Populations of the Nigeria–Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Western Cameroon. International Journal of Primatology 42(1):105-129. doi:10.1007/s10764-020-00191-2.
Labahi PA. 2010. Kepadatan populasi dan perilaku penyerangan monyet dare (Macaca maura) pada tanaman pertanian di hutan pendidikan dan pelatihan Tabo-Tabo Kabupaten Pangkep Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan [desertasi]. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Lee TM, Sodhi NS, Prawiradilaga DM. 2007. The importance of protected areas for the forest and endemic avifauna of sulawesi (indonesia). Ecological Applications. 17(6): 1727–1741. doi:10.1890/06-1256.1
Lobo JM, Jiménez-Valverde A, Real R. 2008. AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 17(2): 145–151. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00358.
Matsumura S. 1991. A preliminary report on the ecology and social behavior of moor macaques (Macaca maurus) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. Stud. Asian Non-human Primates. 8: 27-41.
McCarthy JL, Wibisono HT, McCarthy KP, Fuller TK, Andayani N. 2015. Assessing the distribution and habitat use of four felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Global Ecology and Conservation. 3: 210–221. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2014.11.009
Morrow KS, Glanz H, Ngakan PO, Riley EP. 2019. Interactions with humans are jointly influenced by life history stage and social network factors and reduce group cohesion in moor macaques (Macaca maura). Scientific Reports. 9(1): 1-12. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56288-z
Negga HE. 2007. Predictive modelling of amphibian distribution using ecological survey data: a case study of central Portugal [tesis]. Enschede: University of Twente.
Peraturan Menteri. 2018. No. 20 Tahun 2018 tentang Jenis Tumbuhan dan Satwa yang Dilindungi, No. 13. Jakarta: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan.
Peterson AT, Soberon J, Pearson RG, Anderson RP, Martinez-Meyer E, Nakamura M, Araujo MB. 2011. Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Phillips SJ, Dudík M, Schapire RE. 2004. A maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling. Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning - ICML ’04. doi:10.1145/1015330.1015412
Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling. 190(3):231-259. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026
Phillips SJ, Dudik M. 2008. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography. 31(2):161–175. doi:10.1111/j.0906-7590.2008.5203.x
Rahman DA, Gonzalez G, Haryono M, Muhtarom A, Firdaus AY, Aulagnier S. 2017. Factors affecting seasonal habitat use, and predicted range of two tropical deer in Indonesian rainforest. Acta Oecologica. 82:41-51. doi:10.1016/j.actao.2017.05.008
Sagnotti C. 2013. Diet preferences and habitat use in relation to reproductive states in females of a wild group of Macaca maura inhabiting Karaenta Forest, South Sulawesi [desertasi]. Makassar: Universitas Hasanuddin.
Singh M, Tokola T, Hou Z, Notarnicola C. 2017. Remote sensing-based landscape indicators for the evaluation of threatened-bird habitats in a tropical forest. Ecology and Evolution. 7(13):4552–4567. doi:10.1002/ece3.2970
Supriatna J, Froehlich JW, Erwin JM, Southwick C. 1992. Population habitat and conservation status of macaca maurus, macaca tonkeana and their putative hybrids. Tropical Biodiversity. 1(1):31-48.
Supriatna J, Shekelle M, Fuad HA, Winarni NL, Dwiyahreni AA, Farid M, Zakaria Z. 2020. Deforestation on the indonesian island of sulawesi and the loss of primate habitat. Global Ecology and Conservation. 24:e01205. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01205


gede tragya suartika pramana (Primary Contact)
Lilik Budi Prasetyo
Entang Iskandar
pramana gede tragya suartika, PrasetyoL. B. and IskandarE. (2023) “Modeling The Habitat Suitability of Dare Monkey (Macaca maura Hr Schinz 1825) in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi”, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management). Bogor, ID, 13(1), pp. 57-67. doi: 10.29244/jpsl.13.1.57-67.

Article Details