The impact of nitrifying probiotic to population growth of pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio sp., and toxic nitrogen gasses in marine shrimp culture media under laboratory condition
Intensification of shrimp farming has led to problems of water quality and development of pathogenic bacteria. The excess feed and fecal deposited in the bottom of the pond undergo ammonification and result in excess of ammonia formation in pond water and sediment. The purposes of this research was to investigate the impact nitrifying bacteria application on the controlling of pathogenic Vibrio sp. bacteria and toxic nitrogen gasses. Twelve (12) transparent glass bottles (effective volume of 3 L) were used in this research. Tested probiotic was purchased in free market and producer claims to contain Nitrosomonas sp., Nitrosococcus sp., Nitrobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Aerobacter sp., and Pseudomonas sp. The tested media was sea water containing Vibrio sp., TAN, NO2 and NO3 of 54.07 ± 2.93 mg/L; 6.33 ± 0.17 mg/L; 2.43 ± 0.04 mg/L; and 0.46 ± 0.01 mg/L respectively. The treatment of probiotic was 0 mg/L as a control; 0.1 mg/L; 0.2 mg/L; and 0.4 mg/L with 3 replications. In regard to concentration of Vibrio sp., NH3 and NO2 gasses, treatment doses of 0.1 mg/L (A) resulted a save level within 4 days after treatment, but to more secure in the practical work for shrimp farm, the doses of 0.2 mg/L (B) is suggested.
Atmomarsono M, Muliani, Nurbaya. 2009. The using of probiotic bacteria with different compositions to improve water quality and post-larvae survival of tiger shrimp. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur. 4 (1):73-83.
Boyd CE, Clay JW. 2002. Evaluation of belize aquaculture LTD, a superintensive shrimp aquaculture system. Report prepared under The Word Bank, NACA, and FAO Consorsium. Work in progress for Public Discussion. US: Published by The Consorsium.
Boyd, C.E. 2007. Nitrification important process in aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate. 10(3):64-66.
Boyd CE, Boyd CA, Chainark S. 2010. Shrimp pond soil and water quality management. The Shrimp Book. Nottingham: Nottingham Univ. Press.
Dwiono A, Widigdo B, Soewardi K. 2018. Pengaruh komposisi mineral air tanah terhadap fisiologi dan histologi udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis. 10(3):535-546.
Islamey WDN. 2019. Abundance of bacteria in culture media and digestive tract in intensive shrimp farming ponds during white fecal disease outbreaks [skripsi]. Bogor(ID): PB University. [Indonesian]
Jamal MT, Abdulrahman IA, Harbi MA, Chithambaran S. 2019. Probiotics as alternative control measures in shrimp aquaculture: A review. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology. 7(3):69-77.
Juliyanti V, Salamah, Muliani. 2016. The effect of using probiotics in the maintenance medium on goldfish (Carassius auratus) seeds at different ages. Acta Aquatica. 3(2):66-74.
Karthik R, Pushpam AC, Chelvan Y, Vanitha MC. 2016. Efficacy of Probiotic and nitrifier bacterial consortium for the enhancement of Litopenaeus vannamei aquaculture. Int J Vet Sci Res. 2(1):1-6.
Kumar V, Roy S, Meena DK and Sarkar UK. 2016. Application of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: importance, mechanisms of action, and methods of administration, reviews. Fisheries Science & Aquaculture. 24(4):342-368.
Mangampa M, Suwoyo S. 2010. Technology intensive aquaculture of vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using tokolan seeds. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur. 5(3):351-361. [Indonesian]
Mattjik AA, Sumertajaya M. 2000. Design of Experiments with SAS and Minitab Application Volume I. Bogor: IPB Pr.
Moriarty DJW. 1999. Disease Control in Shrimp Aquaculture with Probiotic Bacteria. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecol. Bell CR, Brylinsky M, Johnson-Green P (eds). Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, Halifax, Canada.
Novitasari A, Iskandar RN, Elvazia H, Harpeni E. 2017. Provision of Bacillus sp. D2.2 on molasses technique media on water quality and growth performance of vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Biospecies. 10(2):50-59.
Primavera JH. 1994. Shrimp farming in the Asia-Pacific: environmental and trade issues and regional cooperation. In Nautilus Institute Workshop on Trade and Environment in Asia-Pacific: Prospects for Regional Cooperation, September (pp. 23-5).
Saifullah. 2013. The role of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in increasing nitrifying bacteria. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian dan Perikanan. 22(2):171-177.
Supono, Wardiyanto, Harpeni E, Annisa H, Khotimah, Ningtyas A. 2019. Identification of Vibrio sp. as cause of white feces diseases in white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and handling with herbal ingredients in East Lampung Regency, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux. 12(2):417-425.
Usman A, Rochmady. 2017. Growth and post-tiger survival of shrimp larvae (Penaeus monodon Fabr.) by administering different doses of probiotics. Jurnal Akuakultur, Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil. 1(1):19-26.
Verschuere L, Robaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete. 2000. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology. 64(4):655-671.
Widanarni, Noermala JI, Sukenda. 2014. Provision of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics for the control of co-infection with Vibrio harveyi and infectious myonecrosis virus in Litopenaeus vannamei. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia. 13(1):11-20.
Widigdo B. 2013. Shrimp Farming with Biocrete Technology. Jakarta: Kompas. [Indonesian]
Wyk PV, Scarpa J. 1999. Water Quality Requirements and Management. US: Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution.
Wulandari T, Widyorini NP, Wahyu P. 2015. The relationship between water quality management and organic matter NO2 and NH3 in the cultivation of vaname shrimp (Litopeneus vannamei) in Keburuhan Purworejo Village. Diponegoro Journal of Maquares. 4(3):42-48.
Yunita M, Hendrawan Y, Yulianingsih R, Keteknikan J. 2015. Microbiological quantitative analysis of Garuda Indonesia's aviation food (Aerofood ACS) based on TPC (Total Plate Count) with the Pour Plate method. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Tropis Dan Biosistem. 3(3):237-248.
Zhihong Z, Aweya1 JJ, Wang F, Yao D, Lun J, Li S, Ma H, Zhang Y. 2018. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) related microRNAs in Litopenaeus vannamei infected with AHPND-causing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. BMC Genomics. 19:335.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).