EFEKTIFITAS KELEMBAGAAN LOKAL DALAM PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA HUTAN PADA MASYARAKAT NAGARI SIMANAU, KABUPATEN SOLOK
AbstractTopik pengelolaan sumber daya hutan maupun masyarakat lokal sekitar hutan tetap menarik untuk dikaji dan dikembangkan di Indonesia. Keberhasilan pengelolaan hutan sebagai sumber daya milik bersama ditentukan oleh aspek kelembagaan. Kelembagaan berfungsi untuk mengatur dan mengendalikan sikap dan perilaku masyarakat dalam pengelolaan hutan. Penelitian ini menjelaskan kelembagaan lokal dalam pengelolaan sumber daya hutan pada masyarakat Nagari Simanau dan implikasinya terhadap performansi hutan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara, pengamatan terlibat, dan pengukuran. Data yang didapatkan dianalisis menggunakan analisis kelembagaan dan analisis performansi hutan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya sistem kategorisasi sumber daya hutan pada masyarakat Nagari Simanau (hutan olahan, simpanan, dan larangan) membantu mengendalikan perilaku masyarakat dalam mengelola sumber daya hutannya dan berimplikasi baik terhadap performa sumber daya hutan, yang ditunjukkan dengan tingginya kerapatan, jumlah jenis, keanekaragaman jenis, dan volume pohon pada hutan simpanan dan larangan. Performa hutan olahan lebih rendah, tetapi fungsi ekonominya sebagai sumber mata pencaharian tambahan bagi masyarakat masih tetap terjaga. Kelembagaan lokal yang masih dipercaya dan dipatuhi masyarakat efektif dalam menunjang pengelolaan sumberdaya hutan yang baik. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan adanya batas pengelolaan antara hutan olahan, simpanan, dan larangan yang telah disepakati bersama; adanya aturan main terhadap kewenangan pemanfaatan; dan sanksi yang jelas dalam penegakkan aturan nagari.
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