PENGEMBANGAN INSTRUMEN PENGASUHAN BERBASIS NILAI BUDAYA JAWA

Agnes Indar Etikawati, Juke Roosjati Siregar, Ratna Jatnika, Hanna Widjaja

Abstract


The concept of parenting cannot be separated from the context of the local culture. This study aimed to develop an instrument of parenting for Javanese families. The study was conducted using design of exploratory sequential mix method.The first step was exploration of the construct of Javanese parenting, and the second was the examination of measurement model. The exploration step was conducted using focused group discussion (FGD) involving 50 Javanese mothers and an interview involving 19 Javanese parents who live in Yogyakarta. The result of exploration step showed that the concept of Javanese parenting is built upon seven values, that are; value of respect to elder (hormat), harmony (rukun), self-control (kendali perilaku), acceptance (‘nrimo’/sikap menerima), self-discipline (disiplin), honesty (jujur), and love (tresno). Then the construct was generalized into items that can be understood by children.The measurement model examination step involved 334 fifth grade students in first trial and 175 fifth grade students on the second trial. The result of the measurement model examination showed that the Javanese parenting costruct is valid (RMESA=0.063; SRMR=0.068) and reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0,925). The result indicate the relevance of local cultural values in development of parenting instrument.


Keywords


budaya, instrumen, nilai, pengasuhan, suku jawa

Full Text:

PDF

References


[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2011). Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010.

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, 46(4), 333-341. doi10.1037/0003-066x.46.4.333.

Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2006). Authoritarian parenting style in asian societies: a cluster- analytic investigation. Contemporary Family Therapy, 28(1), 131–151. doi:10.1007/s10591-006-9699.

Aunola, K., Stattin, H., & Nurmi, J. E. (2000). Adolescents’ achievement strategies, school adjustment, and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(3), 289–306. doi:10.1023/a:1005143607919

Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child development, 37(4), 887-907. Retreived from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1126611.

Bibi, F., Chaudhry, A. G., Awan, E. A., & Tariq, B. (2013). Contribution of parenting style in life domain of children. IOSR Journal of humanities and social science (IOSR-JHSS), 12(2), 91-95. Diunduh dari http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/papers/Vol12-issue2/M01229195.pdf

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723–742. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.22.6.723

Chao, R. K. (2000). The parenting of immigrant Cchinese and Eeuropian Aamerican mothers: relations between parenting styles, socialization, and parental practices. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(2). 233-248. doi:10.1016/S0193-3973(99)00037-4.

Chao, R.K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Cchinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111–1119. doi:10.2307/1131308.

Clarke-Stewart, A. (2006). What have we learned: Proof that families matter, policies for families and children, prospects for future research. In Clarke-Stewart, A., & Dunn, J. (Eds). Families Count (pp.321-336). London: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487.

Deater-Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Externalizing Behavior Problems and Discipline Revisited: Nonlinear Effects and Variation by Culture, Context, and Gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 161–175. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0803_1

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. (3rd ed). London: Sage.

Geertz, H. (1983). Keluarga Jawa. Jakarta (ID): Grafiti Press.

Grusec, J. E. (2002). Parental socialization and children’s acquisition of values. Dalam Bornstein, M.H (ed). Handbook of Parenting, Vol. 5 Practical Issues in Parenting (2nd ed). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Hakim, M., Thontowi, H., Yuniarti, K., & Kim, U. (2012). The basis of children’s trust towards their parents in Java, ngemong: iIndigenous psychological analysis. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 1 (2), 3-16. doi: 10.5861/ijrsp.2012.v1i2.78.

Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B., & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 21(1), 100-120. doi:10.1177/109634809702100108.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118.

Huang, G. H., & Gove, M. (2015). Asian parenting styles and academic achievement: views from eastern and western perspectives. Education, 135 (3), 389-397.

Idrus, M. (2005). Kepercayaan eksistensial remaja Jawa. Jurnal Psikologi Islam, 1 (1), 73-86. Rerieved from http://jpi.api-himpsi.org/index.php/jpi/article/view/19

Karomani. (2011). Persepsi dan prasangka antaretnik di Lampung Selatan: studi komunikasi antaretnik Di Bakauheni Kalianda. Sosiohumaniora, 13(1), 39-57. doi:10.24198/sosiohumaniora. v13i1.5461.

Keller, J., & McDade, K. (2000). Attitudes of low-income parents toward seeking help with parenting: Implications for practice. Child welfare, 79, 285-312.

Kim, J. M. S. (2006). Korean parents' disciplinary practices and socioeconomic status: An investigation based on disciplinary domains and language functions. (Disertasi) Greensboro: Faculty of The Graduate School at The University of North Carolina. Diunduh dari https://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/umi-uncg-1165.pdf.

Kim, S. Y., & Wong, V. Y. (2002). Assessing Asian and Asian American Parenting: a review of the literature. Asian American Mental Health, 185–201. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0735-2_13

Lestari, S. (2013). Konsep dan transmisi nilai-nilai jujur, rukun dan hormat. (Disertasi). Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Maccoby, E. E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28(6), 1006-1017. Doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.28.6.1006.

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-child Interaction. Dalam E. Hetherington (ed). Handbook of Child Psychology, 4. New York: Wiley.

Maio, G. R., & Olson, J. M. (1998). Values as truisms: evidence and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 294-311. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.2.294.

Mulder, N. (1983). Kebatinan dan Hidup Sehari-hari Orang Jawa. Kelangsungan dan Perubahan Kulturil. Jakarta : Percetakan PT Gramedia.

Nguyen, N. A., & Williams, H. L. (1989). Transition from east to west: Vietnamese adolescents and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 505–515. doi: 10.1097/00004583-198907000-00007

Phinney, J. S., Ong, A., & Madden, T. (2000). Cultural values and intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and non-immigrant families. Child Development, 71(2), 528-539. Diunduh dari :http://www.jstor.org/stable/1132007

Power, T. G. (2013). Parenting Dimensions and Styles: A Brief History and Recommendations for Future Research. Childhood Obesity, 9(s1), S–14–S–21. doi:10.1089/chi.2013.0034

Quoss, B., & Zhao, W. (1995). Parenting styles and children’s satisfaction with parenting in China and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 26 (2), 265-280. Diunduh dari http://www.jstor.org/stable/41602383.

Randolph, S. M. (1995). African American children in single-mother faniilies. Dalam B. J. Dickerson (Ed.), African American single mothers: Understanding their lives and families (Vol. 10, pp. 117-145). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rohner, R. P. (2004). The parental “Acceptance-Rejection Syndrome”: universal correlates of perceived rejection. American Psychologist, 59(8), 830–840. doi:10.1037/0003-066x. 59.8.830

Rohner, R. P., & Rohner, E.C. (1981). Education parental acceptance-rejection and parental control: cross-cultural codes. Ethnology, 20(3), 245-260,doi: 10.2307/3773230.

Shucksmith, J., Hendry, L. B., & Glendinning, A. (1995). Models of parenting: implications for adolescent well-being within different types of family contexts. Journal of Adolescence, 18(3), 253–270. doi:10.1006/jado.1995.1018

Skinner, E., Johnson, S., & Snyder, T. (2005b). Six dimensions of parenting: a motivational model. Parenting, 5(2), 175–235. doi:10.1207/s15327922par0502_3.

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S.M. (1994). Over-tTime changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 65(3) 754-770. doi:10.1111/j.14678624. 1994.tb00781.x.

Subramony, D. P., Lindsay, N., Middlebrook, R. H., & Fosse, C. (2002). Using focus group interviews. Performance Improvement, 41(8), 40-47. doi:10.1002/pfi.4140410810.

Suseno, F. M. (1984). Etika Jawa: Sebuah Analisa Falsafi Tentang Kebijaksanaan Hidup Orang Jawa. Jakarta (ID): Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Talib, J., Mohamad, Z., & Mamat, M. (2011). Effects of parenting style on children development. World Journal of Social Sciences, 1(2), 14-35. Diunduh dari https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4d1b/ d5803fd42f4e15001b5ba2ae1a1b5215cf05.pdf

Wang, C. S., & Leung, A. K. (2010). The cultural dynamics of rewarding honesty and punishing deception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(11), 1529-1542., doi:10.1177/0146167210385921.

Wardani, F. L. R. & Uyun, Z. (2017) “Ngajeni wong liyo”; menghormati orang yang lebih tua pada remaja etnis Jawa. Indigenous: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 2 (2), 176-183. Diunduh dari: http://journals.ums.ac.id/index.php/indigenous/article/download/5681/3793

Wise, S., & da Silva, L. (2007). Differential parenting of children from diverse cultural backgrounds attending child care. Research Paper, 39. Diunduh dari https://aifs.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication-documents/rp39.pdf.

Wyer, R. S., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2009) Understanding culture. Theory, research, and application. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Xu, C. (2007). Direct and indirect effects of parenting style with child temperament, parent-child relationship, and family functioning on child social competence in the Chinese culture: Testing The latent models. (Disertasi). University Of North Texas, Texas, US

Yuniarti, K. W. (2006). The magical strength of nrimo and gotong-royong a quick response report following the May 27, 2006 earthquake in Yogyakarta. Anima Jurnal Psikologi Anime Journal of Psychology, 24(3), 201-206. Diunduh dari http://www.anima.ubaya.ac.id/class/ openpdf. php?file=1371801925.pdf

Zhang, Y. B., Lin, M. C., Nonaka, A., & Beom, K. (2005). Harmony, hierarchy and conservatism: a cross-cultural comparison of confucian values in China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. Communication Research Reports, 22(2), 107–115, doi:10.1080/00036810500130539.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24156/jikk.2019.12.3.208

==============================================================================================

Editorial Office

JURNAL ILMU KELUARGA & KONSUMEN
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences
Faculty of Human Ecology
Bogor Agricultural University
Jl. Lingkar Akademik, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
Postal Code 16680
Phone/Fax. (0251) 8627432
Website: http://jurnal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jikk/index
E-mail: jurnal.ikk@gmail.com

Creative Commons License

Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga & Konsumen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.