The Meaning of Family Social Support For Covid-19 Survivor : A Phenomenological Study of Nomads who Affected by Covid-19

The Meaning of Family Social Support For Covid-19 Survivor : A Phenomenological Study of Nomads who Affected by Covid-19

  • Syarifa Nadhrah Mustamin Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor , Indonesia
  • Sylvianti Angraini Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia
  • Syifa Salsabila Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Megawati Simanjuntak Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Yulina Eva Riany Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
Keywords: covid-19 survivor, family social support, nomads, phenomenological qualitative study, social support


Family social support is a very valuable and significant social support in helping the process of recovering the health of a Covid-19 patient. This study aims to describe the perception of social support received by Covid-19 survivors who migrate. This study uses a qualitative approach with a phenomenological design. Participants involved in this study consisted of three participants who live in Indonesia, survivors of Covid-19, living far from family, and a minimum education level of high school. Samples were taken purposively, and the study was conducted in March 2021. This study found that two out of three participants hid the fact that they were positive for Covid-19 from their families. Therefore, the main source of social support for survivors who migrated came from their friends around them. Survivors receive various forms of social support during treatment, including instrumental support, emotional support, reward support, and social network support. This study concludes that each participant has felt sufficient social support even though they are far from their families.


Download data is not yet available.


Alase, A. (2017). The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): a guide to a good qualitative research approach. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 5(2), 9-19.

Alnazly, E., Khraisat, O. M., Al-Bashaireh, A. M., & Bryant, C. L. (2021). Anxiety, depression, stress, fear and social support during covid-19 pandemic among Jordanian healthcare workers. PLoS ONE, 16(3), e0247679.

Ansari, K. A. M. T., & Anjali, A. K. (2020). Use of gadgets during covid-19 - a review. Journal of Palaeontology and Egyptology, 17(7), 3319–3327. Retrieved from

Aprilianto, E., Lumadi, S. A., & Handian, F. I. (2021). Family social support and the self-esteem of breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Journal of Public Health Research, 10(2), 13-15.

Ariapooran, S., Heidari, S., Asgari, M., Ashtarian, H., & Khezeli, M. (2018). Individualism-collectivism, social support, resilience and suicidal ideation among women with the experience of the death of a young person. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 6(3), 250–259. Retrieved from

Astutik, E., & Kiptiyah, N. M. (2016). Factors related to the behavior of treating ex-leprosy patients in the technical implementation unit of social rehabilitation of ex-leprosy patients (Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan perilaku perawatan eks-penderita kusta di unit pelaksana teknis rehabilitasi sosial eks-penderita kusta Nganget, Tuban, Jawa Timur). Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Indonesia, 1(1), 15–21.

Black, R. S., Mrasek, K. D., & Ballinger, R. (2003). Blood kinship lineage in collectivism. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 25(3), 20–28. Retrieved from

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. In The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920.

Dan, N., & Supradewi, R. (2017). Social support and a sense of belonging to loneliness in early semester overseas students at Diponegoro University (Dukungan sosial dan rasa memiliki terhadap kesepian pada mahasiswa perantau semester awal di Universitas Diponegoro). Proyeksi: Jurnal Psikologi, 12(2), 35–42.

El-Zoghby, S. M., Soltan, E. M., & Salama, H. M. (2020). Impact of the covid-19 pandemic on mental health and social support among adult egyptians. Journal of Community Health, 45(4), 689–695.

Ennis, E., & Bunting, B. P. (2013). Family burden, family health and personal mental health. Ennis and Bunting BMC Public Health, 13(255), 1–9.

Goodwin, R., & Plaza, S. H. (2000). Perceived and receiver social support in two cultures : collectivism and support among british and spanish student. Journal of Social and Personal Relationship, 17(2), 282–291.

Harijanto, J., & Setiawan, J. L. (2017). The relationship between social support and happiness in overseas students in Surabaya (Hubungan antara dukungan sosial dan kebahagiaan pada mahasiswa perantau di Surabaya). Psychopreneur Journal, 1(1).

Husni, M., Romadoni, S., & Rukiyati, D. (2015). The relationship between family support and quality of life of breast cancer patients in the surgical inpatient installation of RSUP dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang in 2012 (Hubungan dukungan keluarga dengan kualitas hidup pasien kanker payudara di instalasi rawat inap bedah rsup dr . Mohammad hoesin palembang tahun 2012). Jurnal Keperawatan Sriwijaya, 2(2), 77–83. Retrieved from

Li, Z., Ge, J., Feng, J., Jiang, R., Zhou, Q., Xu, X., Pan, Y., Liu, S., Gui, B., Wang, Z., Zhu, B., Hu, Y., Yang, J., Wang, R., Su, D., Hashimoto, K., Yang, M., Yang, C., & Liu, C. (2021). Less social support for patients with covid-19: comparison with the experience of nurses. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 1–8.

Litbang Kompas. (2020). Aksi-aksi warga tolak rapid test blokade jalan usir tim medis sampai geruduk?. Retrieved from geruduk?_ga=2.245115789.986555377.1646107064-423113174.1599439158

Maaravi, Y., Levy, A., Gur, T., Confino, D., & Segal, S. (2021). The tragedy of the commons: how individualism and collectivism affected the spread of the covid-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 1–6.

Marta, S. (2014). Construction of the meaning of wandering culture among overseas students (Konstruksi makna budaya merantau di kalangan mahasiswa perantau). Jurnal Kajian Komunikasi, 2(1), 27–43.

Matvienko-Sikar, K., Pope, J., Cremin, A., Carr, H., Leitao, S., Olander, E. K., & Meaney, S. (2020). Differences in levels of stress, social support, health behaviours, and stress-reduction strategies for women pregnant before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and based on phases of pandemic restrictions, in Ireland. Women and Birth, 34(5), 447-454.

McCubbin, H. I., & Patterson, J. M. (1983). The family stress process. Marriage & Family Review, 6(1–2), 7–37.

Ong, S. W. X., Tan, Y. K., Chia, P. Y., Lee, T. H., Ng, O. T., Wong, M. S. Y., & Marimuthu, K. (2020). Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(16), 1610–1612.

PSDKJI. (2020). 5 Bulan Pandemi di Indonesia.

Pusparisa, Y. (2020). Ragam bentuk dukungan yang dibutuhkan penyintas covid-19. Retrieved from

Quardona, Q., & Agustina, M. (2019). Emotional and instrumental support with social interaction in socially isolated patients (Dukungan emosional dan instrumental dengan interaksi sosial pada pasien isolasi sosial). Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Keperawatan Indonesia, 8(2), 429–435.

Rahmatina, Z., Nugrahaningrum, G. A., Wijayaningsih, A., & Yuwono, S. (2021). Social support for families tested positive for covid-19. Proceding of Inter-Islamic University Conference on Psychology, 1(1), 1-8.

Sarafino, T. W., & Smith, E. P. (2011). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (7th ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Shafira, F. (2015). Hubungan antara kematangan emosi dengan penyesuaian diri pada mahasiswa perantau. Retrieved from,penyesuaian%20diri%20yang%20rendah%20pula.

Spence, S. H., Sawyer, M. G., Sheffield, J., Patton, G., Bond, L., Graetz, B., & Kay, D. (2014). Does the absence of a supportive family environment influence the outcome of a universal intervention for the prevention of depression? In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(5), 5113–5132.

Strom, J. L., & Egede, L. E. (2012). The impact of social support on outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes : a systematic review. Current Diabetes Report, 12, 769–781.

Sulistyarini, I. R. R., & Andriansyah, Y. (2019). Social support, gratitude, and quality of life of patients with chronic disease in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Psychology and Education, 56(1–2), 1–14. Retrieved from

Sun, N., Wei, L., Wang, H., Wang, X., Gao, M., Hu, X., & Shi, S. (2021). Qualitative study of the psychological experience of covid-19 patients during hospitalization. Journal of Affective Disorders, 278(24), 15–22.

Van Bortel, T., Basnayake, A., Wurie, F., Jambai, M., Koroma, A. S., Muana, A. T., Hann, K., Eaton, J., Martin, S., & Nellums, L. B. (2016). Effets psychosociaux d’une flambée de maladie à virus ebola aux échelles individuelle, communautaire et international. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(3), 210–214.

Xiao, Han, Yan Zhang, Desheng Kong, Shiyue Li, and N. Y. (2020). The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Caregiving Burden and Social Suport among Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients, 17(2), 1-7.

Xiao, W. S. (2021). The role of collectivism–individualism in attitudes toward compliance and psychological responses during the covid-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 600826.

Yang, X., Yang, X., Kumar, P., Cao, B., Ma, X., & Li, T. (2020). Social support and clinical improvement in covid-19 positive patients in China. Nursing Outlook, 68(6), 830–837.

How to Cite
MustaminS. N., AngrainiS., SalsabilaS., SimanjuntakM., & RianyY. E. (2022). The Meaning of Family Social Support For Covid-19 Survivor : A Phenomenological Study of Nomads who Affected by Covid-19: The Meaning of Family Social Support For Covid-19 Survivor : A Phenomenological Study of Nomads who Affected by Covid-19. Journal of Family Sciences, 52-67.