Kusmana, Cecep, Indonesia

  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 1 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    One of the important factors for the management activity at Salak Mountain is the presence of Salak Mountain’s vegetation classification, which until recently has never been done. The research objectives were to classify the variety of vegetation types at Salak Mountain. Vegetation sampling was made with systematic sampling with random start. Vegetation type at alliance level was determined with vegetation ordination. Three vegetation alliances can be extracted from the ordination. These alliances are Shcima walichii-Pandanus punctatus/ Cincora sinensis forest alliance; Glocidion apus-Mallotus blumeana/Chima sinensis forest alliance; and Pinus merkusii-Dysoxiylum arborescens/Dysoxiylum dichotoma forest alliance. Vegetation alliances are forming mainly because of their similarity in their structure, composition, and physiognomy of vegetation. The abiotic factors that consistently differentiate alliance 1 with the other alliances are N total, dust content of the soil, and slope. P soil’s content is the abiotic factor that consistently differentiates alliance 2 with the other alliances, while C organic soil’s content and cation exchange capacity of the soil are the abiotic factors that consistently differentiate alliance 3 with the other alliances. There are five vegetation association at allinace 1, six alliance 2 and seven at alliance 3. Each dominant spesies has uniquely preference to abiotic factor in their distribution at Gunung Salak. Stand structures of alliance 1 and 3 forming J reverse curve.


    Key words: association, ordination, Salak Mountain, vegetation alliance, vegetation classification
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 30 No. 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    This research aimed to study status of arbuscular mycrorrhizal fungus (AMF) in mangrove and coastal forest post-tsunami disaster, and to study the relationship of soil phosphorus content and number of AMF spores and AMF infection of mangrove and coastal forest post tsunami disaster.  Research results show that there were variability in spore numbers in the field studied.  The spore numbers in mangrove forest were found as 359, 235, 118 and 160 spores per 50 g of soil in Meulaboh, Banda Aceh, Pidie and Nias respectively.  Meanwhile, in coastal forest were 587, 297, 265 and 158 spores per 50 g in Meulaboh, Banda Aceh, Pidie and Nias respectively.  The root of Rhizophora sp.  and Casuarina equisetifolia were colonized by AMF both in mangrove and coastal forest.  Number of spores were negatively correlated to soil phosphorus content, however, there were tendency of positive correlation between root infection and soil phosphorus content.


    Key words: coastal forest, mangrove forest, mycorrhiza

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 33 No. 3 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    Farming model of the crop livestock system in the paddy field is located at Cianjur Distric.  The crop livestock system is an effort to increase rice production that be integrated with livestock.  The purpose of the assessment was to find out the role of cattle on the farmer income through the integrated farming system based on the technology innovations on Cianjur district.  The integration pattern was the utilization of plant straws as feed and manure for fertilizer.  Integrated farming system that has been introduced are paddy planting, livestock fattening, and paddy straw fermentation  for food and also ecreement of livestock for organic fertilizer processing.  The assessment involved livestock and 5 ha paddy planting area.  The farmer consist of 2 groups ie.: 20 cooperator group (integrated system), and 10 control (non integrated).  The assessment results showed that rice yield was 5.34 tons/ha of dried ground rice, an increase of 16.09% compared to those yielded by other farmers.  The use of inorganic fertilizer decreased urea to 100 kg/ha (N 71.43%), SP-36 50 kg/ha (50%), KCl 50 kg/ha (50%).  The average of daily weight gain was 0.89 kg/cattle daily.  The income of farmers with the integrated farming system was Rp 9,417,907 for ones hectare land and 2 beef cattle with R/C ratio of 1.27. The average organic fertilizer yielded was 5 kg/cattle daily, the rice straw yielded was 13.20 tons/ha/year.  The C/N ratio of composted feces was 19.03%.  Total income from paddy (5 ha) and livestock (20 heads) integrated farming system about Rp 24,867,500 and Rp 60,675,333/season and provide R/C value about 1.44, meanwhile R/C value of non integrated farming system about 1.33.  It means, paddy and livestock integrated farming system could increase farmer’s income about 69,45% per season compared to non integrated farming.


    Key words: integration, paddy, livestock, fermentation

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 4 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    The field observation of this research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2007 in tropical rainforest at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi.  The main objectives of this research were to study (i) the relationships between interception loss and rainfall properties and vegetation characters and to determine the dominant factors affected, (ii) the effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer, and (iii) the dynamics of vertical energy flux under the forest and grass land. Rainfall interception was 36.34% of gross rainfall in 200 events, Depth rainfall and LAI factors had strong effects on rainfall interception.  The relationships could be expressed as Ic = 0.980+0.239P+0.035LAI (R2 = 0.78).  The output of this equation was compared with Gash model and the observation value showed that deviation of the equation was 1% and less than Gash model, so that equation gave as good result as Gash model gave.  By considering the data requirements and calculation procedures it was concluded that this equation is applicable for interception prediction.  Land use type had effects on radiative and energy balance.  Net radiation (Rn) in the forest was 10.66 MJ/m2/day and higher than in the grass land where incident global radiation was similar.  Vertical latent heat flux in the forest was 9.53 MJ/m2/day or 89.40% Rn in rainy day and 8.41 MJ/m2/day or 74.56% Rn in dry day, on the other hand, in the grass land, sensible heat flux was higher than latent heat flux of all weather condition.  Direct effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer it is needed latent heat about 9.0 MJ/m2/rainy day to evaporate the rain intercepted 3.69 mm/rainy day.  Effect of rainfall interception had positive correlation with  latent heat flux and the negative correlation  with sensible heat flux.


    Key words: interception, energy, mass and tropical rainforest

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 34 No. 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    Environmental conflicts in protection forest mostly caused by issues of scarcity, negative externalities, structural unbalance, and different viewpoint of people on value of forests. In many cases, forest governance creates overlapping policies regarding with these issues that may generate conflict escalation; this occurs in Register 45B of Protection Forest Zone in Lampung Province.  This research aimed to study (1) factors those affecting (escalation of) conflict, (2) conflict management styles manifested by parties/disputants, (3) polarization of parties refer to the conflict roots they face, and (4) settlement options that parties willing to take referring to alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options.  Research implementation and analysis carried out by using pathway analysis and pairwise comparison analysis-scheffe test.  The research found that conflict escalation was mainly caused by decision to convert forest land use. Conflict management styles are collaborative and compromise.  Polarizations of parties refer to similarities on interests.  All parties willing to take negotiation and/or facilitation as ADR options to settle disputes.


    Key words: conflict, environment, forest, resolution

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 34 No. 4 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    Between 1992-2005 there were 8 tsunamis occurred in Indonesia. At 17 July 2006 tsunami reached the southern coast of West Java, Cilacap and Yogyakarta. Tsunamis had caused heavy destruction and death.  The aim of the study is to find out spatially the potential of inundation area by tsunami wave based on the distribution of inundation extent of different run up. The run up of 7.5 m flooded 4% from whole study area.  36% of the area was flooded by 15 m run up. When the run up was 7,5 m, some areas were flooded reaching 200 m from the coast and there were also some points going further to 1 km.  The run up of 15 m moved further to 4,5 km. The information on the distance and extent of inundation from some possible run up of tsunami become an input on potential areas flooded by water and having destruction. 

     Key words: tsunami, inundation, coastal area, West Java

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 3 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    The aims of this research is to study various vegetation associations on Mount Salak.  Sampling was done by using systematic sampling with random start. Cluster analysis was used to determine the vegetation association.  The relationship between abiotic factors and vegetation association was analyzed using Chi-Square statistic.  There are 5 vegetation associations at alliance 1, 6 associations at alliance 2, and 7 associations at alliance 3.  Calcium, phosphorus content of soil, soil’s texture and slope direction are the abiotic factors that affected the association at alliance 1.  Calcium and phosphorus content of soil, and minimum altitude of plot are abiotic factors that affected the association at alliance 2.  Phosphorus content of soil and minimum altitude plot are the abiotic factors that affected the association at alliance 3.


    Key words: Mount Salak, vegetation association, cluster analysis, chi-square statistic
    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 33 No. 4 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles

    Mangrove forest ecosystem is an important ecosystem in a coastal area in order to improve the welfare of coastal villages as well as to improve the productivity of coastal ecosystem.  The purposes of this research were (1) to identify indicators of sustainable mangrove forest ecosystem; (2) to analyze the ecological, economic and social conditions of mangrove forest ecosystem; (3) to analyze index sustainability of mangrove forest ecosystem and (4) to formulate strategies for sustainable mangrove forest ecosystem in Western Part of Seram, Maluku.  This research applied multidimensional scaling (MDS), leverage analysis, Monte Carlo analysis and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to analyze data.  Research showed that dimension of ecology, economy, and social was high sustainable, low sustainable and unsustainable respectively.  Among 22 indicators analyzed there were 6 sensitive indicators which affected local sustainability index. These sensitive indicators should be improved to increase local sustainability index in the future.


    Key words: mangrove sustainability indicators, mangrove sustainability index

    Abstract  PDF
  • Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 32 No. 4 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana - Articles
    The research objective was to study tree's vegetation structure based on diameter class distribution on varians vegetation types at Salak Mountain.  Samples were taken at north, south, east, and west facing slope of Salak Mountain using line transect.  Systematic sampling with random start was used to locate the transetcs.  Measuring stem diameter at breast height was done in order to study the tree diameter class distribution.  Non parametric U Man Whitney statistic was used to know whether there was a different in number of individual at all diameter class in each vegetation type.  At mix forest and plantation forest, the tree diameter class distribution forming J curve shape.  At bamboo forest, the individual number increase at the highest class diameter.  The number of individual trees were highest at mix forest and lowest at bamboo forest. Key words: Mount Salak, Reverse J Curve, tree diameter class,  vegetation type
    Abstract  PDF