Evaluasi Karakter Agro-fisiologi dan Analisis Kekerabatan 10 Aksesi Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) di Lingkungan Alami

Tatik Raisawati, Maya Melati, Sandra A. Aziz, Mohammad Rafi

Abstract


ABSTRACT
Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L.) is known as a medicinal plant but rarely cultivated, perennial sowthistle grows wild. Characterization is needed to determine the variation and relationship of perennial sowthistle in situ. Differences environment affect plant growth and bioactive content. Phenotype characterization of plant species is the basis for selection and improvement of properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of agrophysiological characters and to analyze the relationship of 10 accessions of sowthistle based on agro-physiological characters. The experiment was conducted in October 2015 to February 2016. Descriptive variation characteristic of agrophysiological, correlation coefficient, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the phenotypic variability. The PCA and CA generated similar results. The first five principal component axes explained 91.7% of the total variation with PC1 (43.7%) and PC2 (22.9%). The CA showed that the degree of intraspecific similarity was 52.04%. Three clusters were formed among the 10 accessions especially with the separation of accessions that were collected from similar environments.
Keywords: cluster, similarity, principal component, Sonchus arvensis L.
ABSTRAK
Tempuyung dikenal sebagai tanaman obat tradisional namun belum banyak dibudidayakan, tempuyung tumbuh liar di alam. Perbedaan lingkungan tumbuh aksesi berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan kadar bioaktif tempuyung. Karakterisasi diperlukan untuk mengetahui keragaman dan kekerabatan tempuyung in situ. Karakterisasi fenotip spesies tanaman merupakan dasar untuk seleksi dan perbaikan sifat. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi keragaman karakter agro-fisiologi, dan menganalisis kedekatan hubungan antar 10 aksesi tempuyung in situ berdasarkan karakter agro-fisiologi. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober 2015 sampai Februari 2016. Deskripsi keragaan karakter agro-fisiologi, koefisien korelasi, analisis gerombol dan analisis komponen utama digunakan untuk mengevaluasi keragaman fenotip. Aksesi Tawangmangu menunjukkan keragaan tertinggi pada karakter jumlah daun, lebar daun, diameter batang, bobot basah daun, bobot kering daun, total bobot basah, total bobot kering, tebal daun dan total flavonoid. Analisis gerombol (AG) dan analisis komponen utama (AKU) memberikan hasil yang mirip. Lima sumbu komponen utama menjelaskan 91.7% total keragaman dengan KU 1 (43.7%) dan KU 2 (22.9%). AG menunjukkan tingkat kemiripan sebesar 52.04%. Tiga kelompok terbentuk dari 10 aksesi yang dikoleksi yang diduga berdasarkan kesamaan lingkungan tumbuh.
Kata kunci: gerombol, kemiripan, komponen utama, Sonchus arvensis L.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29244/jhi.9.1.%25p

 

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