Pengelolaan dan Pemupukan Fosfor dan Kalium pada Pertanian Intensif Bawang Merah di Empat Desa di Brebes

Muliana ,, Syaiful Anwar, Arief Hartono, Anas D. Susila, Supiandi Sabiham

Abstract


ABSTRACT
The management and fertilization of shallot cultivation in Brebes is very intensive. The purpose of this research was to study crop management and phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizations of shallot cultivation by smallholder farmers in four villages in Brebes. The data were collected through survey method, interview, and questionnaires to 14 respondent farmers, and analysis of P and K content of farmer's soil samples. The results showed that the cropping index (IP) was 400-500% comprised of three to four times of shallot cultivation and one rice cultivation. The fertilizations of P and K were 22-171 kg of P2O5 ha-1 and 22-213 kg K2O ha-1, respectively, while the recommended rates were 54 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 78 kg K2O ha-1, respectively. This varied fertilizations were not significantly correlated with productions, except fertilization of K with production in rainy season that was significantly correlated at P < 0.05 (n = 14, r = 0.532). The soil P status was very high at all locations and at all depths (0 - 80 cm), while the soil K status ranged from medium to very high. Keywords: nutrient accumulation, nutrient availability, nutrient residue, nutrient status, smallholder farmers
ABSTRAK
Pengelolaan dan pemupukan pada budidaya bawang merah di Brebes sangat intensif. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mengkaji pengelolaan pertanaman dan pemupukan fosfor (P) dan kalium (K) bawang merah yang dilakukan petani di empat desa di Brebes. Pengumpulan data dilaksanakan melalui metode survei, wawancara, dan pengisian kuisioner kepada 14 petani responden, dan analisis kadar P dan K sampel tanah lahan petani responden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa indeks pertanaman (IP) adalah 400-500% dengan pertanaman bawang merah tiga sampai empat kali dan satu kali pertanaman padi. Pemupukan P dan K berturut-turut berkisar 22–171 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 22–213 kg K2O ha-1, sementara rekomendasi Distan Brebes berturut-turut adalah 54 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 78 kg K2O ha-1. Pemupukan bervariasi ini tidak berkorelasi nyata dengan produksi, kecuali pemupukan K dengan produksi pada musim hujan yang berkorelasi nyata pada taraf 5% (n=14, r=0.532). Status P tanah sangat tinggi pada semua lokasi dan pada semua kedalaman (0 – 80 cm), sementara status K tanah lebih bervariasi, yaitu dari sedang sampai sangat tinggi.
Kata kunci: akumulasi hara, ketersediaan hara, petani kecil, residu hara, status hara

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29244/jhi.9.1.%25p

 

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