Waktu dan Dosis Aplikasi Kalsium dan Boron untuk Pengendalian Getah Kuning pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) di Tiga Sentra Produksi

Vandra Kurniawan, Roedhy Poerwanto, Darda Efendi

Abstract


ABSTRACT


Contamination of yellow sap (GK) in the mangosteen fruit leads to low quality of the mangosteen fruit. GK contamination occurs because the cell walls of the fruit is weak due to lack of calcium (Ca) and boron (B). Ca and B plays a role in maintaining the integrity of the cell wall. The study aimed to get the best treatment of dose and the time of application of Ca and B in controlling the contamination of GK on the aryl and mangosteen pericarp. This study used a nested design with 3 factors. First factor was study site, consisting of Cigudeg, Citeureup and Cikembar. The second factor was combination dose of fertilizer, consisting of control (without Ca + B), 1.6 kg Ca tree-1 + 1.553 g B tree-1, and 3.2 kg of Ca tree-1 + 1.553 g B tree-1. The third factor was time of fertilizer application, consisting of anthesis, stadia 1, and anthesis + stadia 1of fruit development. Result of the study showed that location which produced the best fruit was Cikembar where GK on aryl was 22.49% and on pericarp was 29.51%. A dose of 1.6 kg Ca tree-1 + 1.55 g B tree-1 and 3.2 kg Ca tree- 1 + 1.55 g B tree-1 were equally well in reducing GK contamination In aryl (19.91%) and pericarp (28.86%) compared to treatment without Ca and B which showed percentage of GK contaminated fruit on aryl was 50.00% and on pericarp was 56.46%. Ca and B application time was the best at stage 1, which lowered the percentage of GK contamination in aryl (40.44%) and pericarp (27.10%). Ca and B did not affect the physicochemical qualities including diameter, weight, hardness, total soluble solid, total titratable acidity of mangosteen fruit in three study sites.

Keywords: fertilization, immobile nutrient, cell wall, pericarp, yellow sap.

ABSTRAK


Cemaran getah kuning (GK) pada buah manggis menyebabkan rendahnya mutu buah manggis. Cemaran GK terjadi karena dinding sel buah lemah akibat kekurangan unsur kalsium (Ca) dan boron (B). Ca dan B berperan dalam menjaga integritas dinding sel. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan dosis dan waktu aplikasi Ca dan B yang terbaik dalam mengendalikan cemaran GK pada aril dan kulit buah manggis. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Tersarang (Nested Design) 3 faktor. Faktor ke-1 adalah lokasi penelitian, terdiri dari Cigudeg, Citeureup dan Cikembar. Faktor ke-2 adalah kombinasi dosis pupuk yaitu kontrol (tanpa Ca + B), 1.6 kg Ca pohon-1 + 1.553 g B pohon-1, dan 3.2 kg Ca pohon-1 + 1.553 g B pohon-1. Faktor ke-3 adalah waktu aplikasi pupuk yaitu pada saar antesis, Stadia 1, dan Antesis + Stadia 1 dari perkembangan buah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lokasi penelitian dengan kualitas fisik buah terbaik adalah di Cikembar dengan persentase cemaran GK pada aril (22.49%) dan kulit (29.51%). Dosis 1.6 kg Ca pohon-1 + 1.55 g B pohon-1 dan 3.2 kg Ca pohon-1 + 1.55 g B pohon-1 sama baiknya dalam menurunkan cemaran GK di aril (19.91%) dan di kulit (28.86%) dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanpa Ca dan B menunjukkan persentase buah tercemar GK pada aril (50.00%) dan kulit (56.46%). Waktu aplikasi Ca dan B yang terbaik adalah pada stadia 1 yang menurunkan persentase cemaran GK di aril (40.44%) dan kulit (27.10%). Ca dan B tidak mempengaruhi kualitas fisikokimia yang mencakup diameter, bobot, kekerasan, padatan terlarut total, asam tertitrasi total buah manggis di tiga lokasi penelitian.

Kata kunci: pemupukan, hara tidak mobil, dinding sel, pericap, getah kuning.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29244/jhi.7.1.21-30

 

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