Efektivitas Ivermectin dan Albendazole dalam Melawan Ostertagia pada Anakan Domba di Bogor, Indonesia

Silvia Puspitasari, Erni Sulistiawati, Muladno Basar, Achmad Farajallah


Giving a half-dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different mechanism of action is an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic effectiveness of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) have given either separately as a full-dose or half-dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Ostertagia. Twelve sheep from Bogor, Indonesia were divided into six groups based on the anthelmintic treatment: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined (half-dose IVM + half-dose ABZ), and control groups. The treatment effectiveness was determined using the Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) on before and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of treatment. FECR of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and both combined ranged from 78-100%, 96-100%, -71-89%, -521-64%, and 54-100%, respectively. The results showed that full-dose IVM was the most effective to against Ostertagia until 42 days and followed the combined that effective until 28 days. Half-dose and full-dose ABZ weren’t effective to against Ostertagia.


albendazole; effectiveness; ivermectin; ostertagia; sheep

Full Text:



Alvarez-Sanchez MA, Perez-Garcia J, Cruz-Rojo MA, Rojo-Vazquez FA. 2006. Anthelmintic resistance in trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep farms in Northwest Spain. Parasitology Research. 99(1): 78-83. http://doi.org/b6kh72

Anderson N, Martin PJ, Jarrarett RG. 1988. Mixtutes of anthelmintics: a strategy against resistance. Australian Veterinary Journal. 65(2): 62-64. http://doi.org/cf73zj

Anderson RC. 2000. Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates: Their Development and Transmission. New York (US): CABI Publishing. http://doi.org/fn39k9

Arifin M, Riyanto E, Sularno DS, Sutopo, Mawati S. 1996. The responsse of goats grazed on the garbage disposal areas in Semarang city to protein supplementation and deworming. In: Final Research Reports from Nutrition Small Grants 1992-1993. Small Ruminant CRSP Working Paper No 167. SR-CRSP-CRIAS, Sungai Putih, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

Atta AH, Abo-Shihada MN. 2000. Comparative pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin in sheep. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 23(1): 49-52. http://doi.org/btwqvd

Balweber LR. 1958. Veterinary parasitology. Waltham, Massachusetts (US): Butterworth-Heinemann.

Barnes EH, Dobson RJ, Barger IA. 1995. Worm control and anthelmintic resistance: adventures with a model. Parasitology Today. 11(2): 56-63. http://doi.org/d69gn8

Barton NJ, Trainor BL, Urie JS, Atkins JW, Pyman MFS, Wolstencroft IR. 1985. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats. Australian Veterinary Journal. 62(7): 224-227. http://doi.org/b8rw7s

Beisel WR. 1982. Synergism and antagonism of parasitic diseases and malnutrition. Reviews of Infectious Disease. 40(4): 746-750. http://doi.org/ftmqf3

Bekele T, Woldeab T, Lahlou-Kassi A, Sherington J. 1992. Factors affecting morbidity and motility on-farm and on-station in the Ethiopian highland sheep. Acta Tropica. 52(2-3): 99-109. http://doi.org/fgfxq7

Beriajaya, Haryuningtyas D, Gray GD. 2002. Kejadian resistensi terhadap antelmintika pada domba dan kambing di Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, dan Yogyakarta. Pros. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Ciawi-Bogor, 30 September-1 Oktober 2002. Puslitbang Peternakan, Bogor (ID). Hlm. 403-407.

Campbell WC, Fisher MH, Stapley EO, Albers-Schonberg G, Jacob TA. 1983. Ivermectin: A Potent New Antiparasitic Agent. Science. 221(4613): 823-828. http://doi.org/bvxngt

Campbell WC. 1990. Benzimidazoles: veterinary uses. Parasitol Today. 6(4): 130-133. http://doi.org/fkvh39

Cezar AS, Toscan G, Camillo G, Sangioni LA, Ribas HO, Vogel FSF. 2010. Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 173(1-2): 157-160. http://doi.org/d8c72b

Coles GC, Bauer C, Borgsteede FH, Geerts S, Klei TR, Tylor MA, Waller PJ. 1992. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology. 44(1-2): 35-44. http://doi.org/b7hsvq

Coles GC. 2003. Strategies to minimise anthelmintic resistance in large animal practice. In Practice. 25(8): 494-499. http://doi.org/btw5zk

Coles GC. 2005. Anthelminthic resistance – looking to the future: a UK perspective. Research in Veterinary Science. 78(2): 99-108. http://doi.org/bv436d

Dash KM. 1986. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Australian Veterinary Journal. 63(2): 45-47. http://doi.org/dk8vfv

De Graef J, Claerebout E, Geldhof P. 2013. Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal cattle nematodes. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift. 82(3): 113-123.

Dhewiyanty V, Setyawati TR, Yanti AH. 2015. Prevalensi dan intensitas larva infektif nematoda gastrointestinal Strongylida dan Rhabditida pada kultur feses kambing (Capra sp.) di tempat pemotongan hewan kambing Pontianak. Protobiont. 4(1): 178-183.

Duncan JL, Smith WD, Dargie JD. 1978. Possible relationship of levels mucosal IgA and serum IgG to immune unresponsiveness of lambs to Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary Parasitology. 4(1): 21-27. http://doi.org/c3whps

Egerton JR, Ostlind DA, Blair LS, Eary CH, Suhayda D, Cifelli S, Riek RF, Campbell WC. 1979. Avermectins, new family of potent anthelmintic agents: efficacy of the B1a component. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 15(3): 372-378. http://doi.org/825

Egerton JR, Eary CH, Suhayda D. 1981. The anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin in experimentally infected cattle. Veterinary Parasitology. 8(1): 59-70. http://doi.org/d76fsn

Entrocasso C, Alvarez L, Manazza J, Lifschitz A, Borda B, Virkel G, Mottier L, Lanusse C. 2008. Clinical efficacy assessment of the albendazole-ivermectin combination in lambs parasitized with resistant nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology. 155(3-4): 249-256. http://doi.org/bnnrq8

Foreyt WJ. 2001. Veterinary Parasitology Reference Manual. Iowa (US): Blackwell Publishing.

Geary TG, Sims SM, Thomas EM, Vanover L, Davis JP, Winterrowd CA, Klein RD, Ho NFH, Thompson DP. 1993. Haemonchus contortus: Ivermectin-induced paralysis of the pharynx. Experimental Parasitology. 77(1): 88-96. http://doi.org/dwz9vn

Gibson TE. 1983. The influence of nutrition on the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites and their hosts. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 22(1): 15-20. http://doi.org/c59whk

Gill HS, Watson DL, Brandon MR. 1993. Monoclonal antibody to CD4+ T cells abrogates genetic resistance to Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Immunology. 78(1): 43-49.

Githigia SM, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Maingi N. 2001. Impact of gastrointestinal helminths on production in goats in Kenya. Small Ruminant Research. 42(1): 21-29. http://doi.org/c9zttj

Gopal RM, Pomroy WE, West DM. 1999. Resistance of field isolates of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia circumcinta to ivermectin. International Journal for Parasitology. 29(5): 781-786. http://doi.org/fdc2pw

Hansen J, Perry B. 1994. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of helminth parasites of ruminants. Nairobi (KE): ILRAD.

Haryuningtyas D, Beriajaya, Gray DG. 2001. Resistensi antelmintika golongan benzimidazole pada domba dan kambing di Indonesia. Pros. Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor, 17-18 September 2001. Puslitbang Peternakan, Bogor (ID). Hlm. 509-518.

Hubert J, Kerboeuf D, Nicolas JA, Dubost G, Gayaud C. 1991. Resistance of small ruminant nematodes to benzimidazole derivative compounds in limousin france. Recueil De Medecine Veterinaire De L'Ecole D'Alfort. 167(2): 135-140.

Hughes PL, McKenna PB, Dowling AF. 2005. A survey of the prevalence of emerging macrocyclic lactone resistance and of benzimidazole resistance in sheep nematodes in the lower North Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 53(1): 87-90. http://doi.org/bbhhvg

Jackson F, Jackson E, Coop RL. 1992. Evidence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in a strain of Teladorsagia circumcincta (Ostertagia circumcincta) isolated from goats in Scotland. Research in Veterinary Science. 53(3): 371-374. http://doi.org/cdvsnz

Kambara T, McFarlane RG, Abell TJ, McAnulty RW, Sykes AR. 1993. The effect of age and dietary protein on immunity and resistance in lambs vaccinated with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. International Journal for Parasitology. 23(4): 471-476. http://doi.org/c86jzw

Kaplan RM. 2004. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends in Parasitology. 20(10): 477-481. http://doi.org/cfgvdb

Kerboeuf D, Beaumont-Schwartz C, Hubert J, Maillon M. 1988. Resistance des strongles gastro-intestinaux aux anthelminthiques chez les petits ruminants. Resultats d’une enquete dans le Val de Loire. Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire. 164(12): 1001-1006.

Kohler P. 2001. The biochemical basis of anthelmintic action and resistance. International Journal for Parasitology. 31(4): 336-345. http://doi.org/dtgjbj

Lanusse CE, Prichard RK. 1993. Clinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of benzimidazole anthelmintics in ruminants. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 25(3): 235-279. http://doi.org/b8jj7r

Leathwick DM, Hosking BC, Bisset SA, McKay CH. 2009. Managing anthelmintic resistance: is it feasible in New Zealand to delay the emergence of resistance to a new anthelmintic class?. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 57(4): 181-192. http://doi.org/cpzr9h

Lloberas M, Alvarez L, Entrocaso C, Virkel G, Lanusse C, Lifschitz A. 2012. Measurement of ivermectin concentrations in target worms and host gastrointestinal tissues: influence of the route of administration on the activity against resistant Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Experimental Parasitology. 131(3): 304-309. http://doi.org/826

Llyod S, Soulsby EJL. 1987. Immunobiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. Immune Response in Parasitic Infections: Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunoprophylaxis. Vol 1 (Editor: Soulsby EJL). Florida (US): CRC Press Inc.

Marriner SE, Evans ES, Bogan JA. 1985. Effect of parasitism with Ostertagia circumcincta on pharmacokinetics of fenbendazole in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology. 17(3): 239-249. http://doi.org/fkdz58

Martin PJ. 1989. Selection for thiabendazole resistance in Ostertagia spp. By low efficiency anthelmintic treatment. International Journal for Parasitology. 19(3): 317-325. http://doi.org/fgnh4g

McKenna PB. 1989. Multigeneric resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 37(2): 62-64. http://doi.org/cbn9rz

McKenna PB. 2006. Further comparison of faecal egg count reduction test procedures: sensitivity and specificity. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 54(6): 365-366. http://doi.org/dm93zb

Palmer DG, Besier RB, Lyon J. 2000. Anthelmintic resistance in Western Australia: a point of crisis?. In: Proceedings of the Australian Sheep Veterinary Society. AVA Conference Perth, Australia.

Prichard RK, Hall CA, Kelly JD, Martin ICA, Donald DA. 1980. The problem of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Australian Veterinary Journal. 56(5): 239-250. http://doi.org/ck4hgj

Reinecke RK, Lourens M, Petersen B. 1991. Overberg Research Projects. XI. First stage larval reduction test to assess anthelmintic efficacy ante mortem in sheep. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 58(4): 285-290.

Ridwan Y, Satrija F, Retnani EB, Tiuria R. 2000. Heamonchus contortus resistant to albendazole on sheep farm in Bogor. International Conference on Soil Transmitted Helminth Control and Workshop on Indonesian Association of Parasitic Disease Control. Bali (ID), 21-24 February 2000.

Riffkin GG, Dobson C. 1979. Predicting resistance of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infections. Veterinary Parasitology. 5(4): 365-378. http://doi.org/b4k8kr

Sangster NC, Gill J. 1999. Pharmacology of anthelmintic resistance. Parasitology Today. 15(4): 141-146. http://doi.org/dzq8hs

Sargison ND, Jackson F, Bartley DJ, Wilson DJ, Stenhouse LJ, Penny CD. 2007. Observations on the emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in the south-east of Scotland. Veterinary Parasitology. 145(1-2): 65-76. http://doi.org/fpcnk5

Shaw KL, Nolan JV, Lynch JJ, Coverdales OR, Gill HS. 1995. Effects of weaning, supplementation and gender on acquired immunity to Haemonchus contortus in lambs. International Journal for Parasitology. 25(3): 381-387. http://doi.org/b576cj

Smith G, Grenfell BT, Isham V, Cornell S. 1999. Anthelmintic resistance revisited: under-dosing, chemoprophylactic strategies, and mating probabilities. International Journal for Parasitology. 29(1): 77-91. http://doi.org/dcxvfg

Suarez VH, Cristel SL. 2007. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematode in the western Pampeana Region of Argentina. Veterinary Parasitology. 144(1-2): 111-117. http://doi.org/cgd9tb

Taylor MA, Hunt KR, Wilson CA, Baggott DG. 1990. Efficacy of ivermectin against benzimidazole-resistant nematodes of sheep. Veterinary Record. 127(12): 302-303.

Van Schalkwyk PC, Schroder J. 1989. Benzimidazole-resistant Ostertagia circumcincta from angora goats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 60(2): 76-78.

Vercruysse J, Dorny P, Claerebout E, Demeulenaere D, Smets K, Agneessens J. 2000. Evaluation of the persistent efficacy of doramectin and ivermectin injectable against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology. 89(1-2): 63-69. http://doi.org/cwzj2q

Wolstenholme AJ, Fairweather, Prichard R, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Sangster NC. 2004. Drug resistance in veterinary helminths. Trends in Parasitology. 20(10): 469-476. http://doi.org/cptp9k

Wolstenholme AJ. 2011. Ion channels and receptor as targets for the control of parasitic nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 1(1): 2-13. http://doi.org/fgvv7r

Yates DM, Portillo V, Wolstenholme AJ. 2003. The avermectin receptors of Haemonchus contortus and Caenorhabditis elegans. International Journal for Parasitology. 33(11): 1183-1193. http://doi.org/c8rtnp

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.20.3.257

View JIPI Stats


   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email: jipi-lppm@apps.ipb.ac.id; jipi-lppm@ipb.ac.id