Indonesian Journal of Primatology <p>Indonesian Journal of Primatology (InaJP) is an international peer-reviewed and open-access journal that publishes significant and important research from all areas of primatology fields such as biomedical, biology, and conservation. Bio-anthropology, bio-psychology, social, policy, and environmental aspects of primatology are covered by InaJP. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">E-ISSN 2964-5441</a></p> <p>InaJP is published by Primate Research Center, IPB University, Indonesia. We accept submissions from all over the world. Our Editorial Board members are prominent and active international researchers in primatology fields who ensure an efficient, fair, and constructive peer-review process. All accepted articles will be published on payment of an article-processing charge and will be freely available to all readers with worldwide visibility and coverage.</p> <p><strong>For a limited time, no payment will be charged for articles submitted until 2024.</strong></p> en-US <p>As our aim is to disseminate original research articles, hence publishing rights is necessary. The publishing right is needed in order to reach an agreement between the author and publisher. As the journal is fully open access, the authors will sign an exclusive license agreement, where authors have copyright but license exclusive publishing rights in their article to the publisher. The authors have the right to:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Share their article in the same ways permitted to third parties under the relevant user license.</li> <li class="show">Retain patent, trademark, and other intellectual property rights including research data.</li> <li class="show">Proper attribution and credit for the published work.</li> </ul> <p>For the open access article, the publisher is granted the following rights.</p> <ul> <li class="show">The exclusive right to publish the article, and grant rights to others, including for commercial purposes.</li> <li class="show">For the published article, the publisher applied for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.</li> </ul> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Dr Puji Rianti) (Hana Intishar Sawitri, SHut) Fri, 29 Dec 2023 20:11:50 +0700 OJS 60 Mosquito Community in Primate Captivity (Tarsius sp.) and its Potential as Transmitters of Zoonotic Mosquito-Borne Diseases. <p><span lang="EN-US">By means of conservation, ectoparasites monitoring and surveillance especially mosquitoes in primate captivity become important. Mosquito is one of the ectoparasites which acts as a vector of various types of zoonotic diseases such as Dengue, Zika, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, filariasis, and others. This </span><span lang="EN-GB">study was</span><span lang="EN-US"> aimed</span><span lang="EN-GB"> to determine the diversity of mosquito species</span><span lang="EN-US">, </span><span lang="EN-GB">their fluctuations as well as the potential of mosquitoes as a Dengue virus (DENV) </span><span lang="EN-US">vector </span><span lang="EN-GB">around the tarsier </span><span lang="EN-US">captivity</span><span lang="EN-GB"> in the </span><span lang="EN-US">animal </span><span lang="EN-GB">conservation laboratory </span><span lang="EN-GB">IPB Primate Research Center (IPB PRC). </span><span lang="EN-US">M</span><span lang="EN-GB">osquitoes </span><span lang="EN-US">were collected</span><span lang="EN-GB"> from February</span><span lang="EN-US"> to </span><span lang="EN-GB">April 2020 using light traps and sweep net every two hours from </span><span lang="EN-US">06.00 pm to 06.00 am</span><span lang="EN-GB">. Detection of the presence of Dengue virus (DENV) is carried out using Reverse Transcriptase Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) against Aedes albopictus and Armigeres subalbatus. The results showed that there were 4 </span><span lang="EN-US">species </span><span lang="EN-GB">of mosquitoes caught around the tarsier</span><span lang="EN-US"> captivity</span><span lang="EN-GB"> namely Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, and Armigeres foliatus. The dominant mosquito species were Armigeres subalbatus (62.11%) and Aedes albopictus (41.61%). Detection of </span><span lang="EN-US">D</span><span lang="EN-GB">engue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 in Aedes albopictus and Armigeres subalbatus gave negative results.</span><span lang="EN-US"> The presence of mosquitoes that have the potential to carry zoonotic disease around the tarsier captivity in </span><span lang="EN-US">IPB PRC shows the potential for Mosquito-Borne Diseases to both tarsiers and human.</span></p> Sarasvathi Cécile, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Uus Saepuloh, Sela Septima Mariya, Huda Shalahudin Darusman Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Primatology Fri, 29 Dec 2023 12:50:25 +0700 Morphometric Analysis of Growth in Captive-bred Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina Linnaeus 1766) <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The pig-tailed macaque has a high vulnerability to human infectious disease pathogens as well as nonhuman primate viruses, making it a good animal model for biomedical research. The goals of this research are to better understand the morphometric and growth rate variations between male and female pig-tailed macaques living in tropical captivity as their natural climate, which will be useful in developing research techniques as well as modifying and developing equipment and instruments.</p> <p>The research was carried out on captive pig-tailed macaques born and kept at the Research Animal Facility in Lodaya (RAF-L) Primate Research Center IPB University (PRC-IPB). The characteristics were separated into four categories: head size, torso, upper limb, and lower limb. During the study period, 70 animals were measured, 32 males and 38 females. The repetition of measurements at distinct timepoints according to body development varies for each individual depending on the animal's situation at that time.</p> <p>There was no visible difference in body and extremity sizes between male and female animals between the ages of 1 and 4 years. Males' head proportions appear to expand consistently in height and width after they are beyond 2 years old, in contrast to females. The growth trend of females tends to decrease from one year of age until sexual maturity, in contrast to males which show a growth spurt at the ages of 1 and 4 years. Differences in size and growth rate indicating sexual dimorphism are visible after the female reaches sexual maturity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Suryo Saputro, Adinda Darayani Azhar, Wahyu Putriyani, Vinka Aftinata Kusumaputri, Suzy Tomongo, Amelia Diyan Safitri, Permanawati Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Primatology Sun, 07 Jan 2024 18:15:37 +0700 The PCNA GENE EXPRESSION AS A MARKER OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE IN THE BRAIN OF LONG-TAILED MACAQUES (Macaca fascicularis) <p>Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's is still difficult to do, thus it is important to carry out further research to find biomarkers that can be used to detect early Alzheimer's disease. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (<em>PCNA</em>) is known as a proliferation marker, which has the potential to detect neurogenesis in the brain. This study aimed to identify <em>PCNA</em> gene expression in the brain as a marker of Alzheimer’s disease in Macaca fascicularis. Macaca fascicularis was used in this study because of their similarities with humans in terms of their behavioral complexity, as well as high cognitive abilities and the formation of a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in the brain. This study used the brains of 7 monkeys in the hippocampus and cortical regions. Monkeys previously have been divided into old and adult age groups. The detection of <em>PCNA</em> gene expression was done using RT-qPCR method. The results showed the gene expression tended to be higher in the adult group and the hippocampus region, although based on statistical analysis showed no significant differences</p> Lis Rosmanah, Aqila Tsabita, Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Huda Shalahudin Darusman Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Primatology Sat, 20 Jan 2024 23:20:02 +0700 Gen expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as animal model for Papillomavirus study <p>Cervical cancer is one of the fourth cancers in the world that occurs in women. Papillomavirus infection has been reported as one of the causative agents of cervical cancer. Apoptotic mechanism is one of the signs of cancer. Cynomolgus monkeys have been widely used as animal models in biomedical research because they are similar to humans in terms of genetics, anatomy, and physiology compared to other animals. Previous studies reported that cynomolgus monkeys have undergone spontaneous infection by papillomavirus, but this infection did not show the phenomenon of cervical cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction of papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer through apoptotic mechanisms regulated by <em>Bax</em> and <em>Bcl-2</em> genes. Gene expression was performed in this study using Real-Time PCR technique. The results showed an increase in <em>Bax</em> and <em>Bcl-2</em> gene expression in positive group cynomolgus monkeys with papillomavirus infection. <em>Bcl-2</em> as anti-apoptotic gene expression increased significantly higher than <em>Bax</em> as pro-apoptotic gene. <em>Bax</em> and <em>Bcl-2</em> have potential as biomarkers to predict the phenomenon of cervical cancer in cynomolgus monkeys with papillomavirus infection.</p> Sela Septima Mariya, Bella Fatima Dora Zaelani, Uus Saepuloh, Silmi Mariya, Huda Shalahudin Darusman, Isti Kartika Sari, Yuliana Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Primatology Mon, 04 Mar 2024 08:59:14 +0700 Behavior of Sumatran Lorises (Nycticebus coucang) in the Captive, Primate Research Center-IPB University <p class="section" style="line-height: 150%; margin: 0in 2.9pt .0001pt 2.9pt;">Lorises are protected and endangered animals, according to the IUCN and government regulations in permen <br>LHK No. P.106/2018 , because of poaching, habitat fragmentation, and illegal sales that occur. This study aims to determine the suitability of the cages by observing the behavior and use of the cages space by the sumatra lorises in the Primate Research Center- IPB. The method used is Observation of daily behavior using the animal focal method sampling, namely a direct observation method using one individual and an instantaneous point samplingmethod, namely recording all behavior for a certain duration of time, which will produce data on the percentage of animal behavior every 10 minutes. The time resulting from observations of 3 individual lorises was 144 hours. The study results showed locomotion behavior at 46.69%, social behavior at 2.63%, elimination at 1.6%, rest at 25.11%, grooming at 6.16%, foraging at 2.4%, eating at 3.88%, and being alert at 11.53%. Lorises in Primate Research Center use the entire cages space provided to carry out active and inactive activities. The conservation aspect is sufficiently supportive of the housing and feed aspects provided.</p> Ramadhan Adirasa Sundara, Abdul Harus Mustari, Huda Shalahudin Darusman, Hana Hana Intishar Sawitri Copyright (c) 2024 Indonesian Journal of Primatology Thu, 21 Mar 2024 13:19:17 +0700