Physical and Microbiological Qualities of Kampong-Broiler Crossbred Chickens Meat Raised in Different Stocking Densities

  • C. A. Patria Bogor Agricultural University
  • R. Afnan Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University
  • I. I. Arief Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University
Keywords: Kampong-broiler crossbred, stocking density, meat quality, THI


The crossbreeding between broiler and kampong chickens has been performed to develop a kampong-broiler strain chicken. The chicken stocking condition needs more attention as a part of animal welfare. This study was performed to identify the relationship between the stocking density and the stress based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and the effect of stocking density on meat quality, i.e., physical, microbiological, and organoleptic. Ninety DOCs of Kampong-Broiler (KB) were assigned into a completely randomized design with 3 treatments of stocking density  i.e., 8, 10, and 12 birds m-2. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The experimental chickens were housed in 9 blocks of housing each with 1 x 1 m2 size. Data on physical and microbiology of meat qualities were analyzed with analysis of variance and continued with Duncan’s multiple range test. The organoleptic data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result showed that the stocking density did not significantly affect the physical and hedonic quality of KB chicken’s breast. The stocking densities significantly affected (P<0.05) the microbiological variables of breast meat. The average value of THI during maintenance reached 28.98±1.25–29.33±1.32oC. The higher the animal density the higher the THI value that correlated to the stress condition. However, high stocking density did not affect the physical and hedonic quality of breast meat,  thus it can be accepted by the consumers. The higher the stocking density the higher the total plate count, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, without the presence of Salmonella sp. The meat quality of KB chickens raised in the stocking density of 10 birds m-2 meets the requirement of SNI 01-3924-2009.


Download data is not yet available.


Abustam, E. 2012. Ilmu daging: Aspek produksi, Kimia, Biokimia dan Kualitas. Masagena Press, Makasar.

Aerita, A. N. 2014. Hubungan higiene pedagang dan sanitasi dengan kontaminasi Salmonella pada daging ayam potong. Unnes Journal of Public Health 3(4): 9-16.

An, J. Y., J. X. Zheng, J. Y. Li, D. Zeng, L. J. Qu, G. Y. Xu, & N. Yang. 2010. Effect of myofiber characteristics and thickness of perimysium and endomysium on meat tenderness of chickens. Poultry Sci. 89: 1750-1754.

Arief, I. I., T. Suryati, D. Afiyah, & D. Wardhani. 2014. Physicochemical and organoleptic of beef sausages with teak leaf extract (Tectona grandis) addition as preservative and natural dye. International Food Research Journal 21: 2033-2042.

Berrang, M., W. Windham, & R. Meinersmann. 2011. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses subjected to a high pH scald and low pH postpick chlorine dip. Poultry Sci. 90: 896-900.

Berri, C., J. Besnard, & C. Relandeau. 2008. Increasing dietary lysine increases final pH and decreases drip loss of broiler breast meat. Poultry Sci. 87: 480-484.

Bohmanova, J., I. Misztal, & J. Cole. 2007. Temperature-humidity indices as indicators of milk production losses due to heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 1947-1956.

Bowker, B. C., H. Zhuang, & R. J. Buhr. 2014. Impact of carcass scalding and chilling on muscle proteins and meat quality of broiler breast fillets. LWT-Food Science and Technology 59: 156-162.

Cengiz, Ö., B. H. Köksal, O. Tatlı, Ö. Sevim, U. Ahsan, A. G. Üner, et al., 2015. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers. Poultry Sci. 94: 2395-2403.

De Marchi, M., M. Penasa, M. Battagin, E. Zanetti, C. Pulici, & M. Cassandro. 2011. Feasibility of the direct application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy on intact chicken breasts to predict meat color and physical traits. Poultry Sci. 90: 1594-1599.

Dewantoro, G. I., M. Adiningsih, T. Purnawarman, T. Sunartatie, & U. Afiff. 2009. Tingkat prevelansi Echerichia coli dalam daging ayam beku yang dilalulintaskan melalui pelabuhan Merak. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia 14: 211-216.

Dewi, S. H. C. 2013. Kualitas kimia daging ayam kampung dengan ransum berbasis konsentrat broiler. Jurnal AgriSains 4: 42-49.

Dilaga, I. W. S. 2012. Pengaruh pemberian berbagai level Clenbuterol terhadap kualitas daging babi jantan grower. Buletin Peternakan 31: 200-208.

FDA, U., U. Food, & D. Administration. 2001. Bacteriological analytical manual online. Available from:< Available from: http://www. fda. gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm2006949. htm>. Acessed: fev 2: 2015.

Feddes, J., E. Emmanuel, & M. Zuidhoft. 2002. Broiler performance, body weight variance, feed and water intake, and carcass quality at different stocking densities. Poultry Sci. 81: 774-779.

Gustira, D. E., & T. Kurtini. 2015. Pengaruh kepadatan kandang terhadap performa produksi ayam petelur fase awal grower. Jurnal Ilmiah Peternakan Terpadu 3: 87-92.

Hartono, E., N. Iriyanti, & R. Santosa. 2013. Pengaruh pakan fungsional terhadap daya ikat air, susut masak dan keempukan daging ayam broiler. Jurnal Ilmiah Peternakan 1: 10-19.

Honikel, K., & R. Hamm. 1994. Measurement of water-holding capacity and juiciness. Springer, London, UK.

Irmanita, V., A. K. Wardani, & H. Harsojo. 2016. Pengaruh iradiasi Gamma terhadap kadar protein dan mikrobiologis daging ayam broiler pasar tradisional dan pasar modern Jakarta Selatan. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri 4: 428-435.

Iskandar, S., S. Setyaningrum, Y. Amanda, & I. Soesanto. 2014. Pengaruh kepadatan kandang terhadap pertumbuhan dan prilaku ayam Wareng-Tangerang dara. JITV 19: 19-24.

Janisch, S., C. Krischek, & M. Wicke. 2011. Color values and other meat quality characteristics of breast muscles collected from 3 broiler genetic lines slaughtered at 2 ages. Poultry Sci. 90: 1774-1781.

Jayalakshmi, T., R. Kumararaj, T. Sivakumar, T. T. Vanan, & D. Thiagarajan. 2009. Influence of stocking densities on litter moisture, microbial load, air ammonia concentration and broiler performance. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci 5: 80-86.

Jayasena, D. D., D. U. Ahn, K. C. Nam, & C. Jo. 2013. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: A review. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26: 732-742.

Jung, S., Y. S. Bae, H. J. Kim, D. D. Jayasena, J. H. Lee, H. B. Park, K. N. Heo, & C. Jo. 2013. Carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5′-monophosphate contents in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken. Poultry Sci. 92: 3275-3282.

Kamboh, A. & W.-Y. Zhu. 2013. Effect of increasing levels of bioflavonoids in broiler feed on plasma anti-oxidative potential, lipid metabolites, and fatty acid composition of meat. Poultry Sci. 92: 454-461.

Kirmaci, B., & R. K. Singh. 2012. Quality of chicken breast meat cooked in a pilot-scale radio frequency oven. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 14: 77-84.

Kusumaningrum, A., P. Widiyaningrum, & I. Mubarok. 2013. Penurunan total bakteri daging ayam dengan perlakuan perendaman infusa daun salam (Syzygium polyanthum). Jurnal MIPA 36: 14-19.

Lawrie, R., & D. Ledward. 2006. Lawrie’s meat science. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited.

Li, C., D. Wang, W. Xu, F. Gao, & G. Zhou. 2013. Effect of final cooked temperature on tenderness, protein solubility and microstructure of duck breast muscle. LWT-Food Science and Technology 51: 266-274.

Mattjik, A. A., & I. M. Sumertajaya. 2002. Perancangan percobaan dengan aplikasi SAS dan Minitab. Jilid I. Edisi ke-2. Institut Pertanian (IPB)-Press, Bogor.

Morshedy, A., & K. I. Sallam. 2009. Improving the microbial quality and shelf life of chicken carcasses by trisodium phosphate and lactic acid dipping. International Journal of Poultry Science 8: 645-650.

Nurwantoro, N., V. Bintoro, A. Legowo, L. Ambara, A. Prakoso, S. Mulyani, & A. Purnomoadi. 2011. Microbiological and physical properties of beef marinated with garlic juice. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture 36: 166-170.

Olanrewaju, H., J. Purswell, S. Collier, & S. Branton. 2010. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 89: 2668-2677.

Owens, C. M., 2010. Poultry Meat Processing. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Russell, S. M., 2012. Controlling Salmonella in poultry production and processing. CRC Press.

Samuel, D., B. Park, M. Sohn, & L. Wicker. 2011. Visible–near-infrared spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity in normal and pale broiler breast meat. Poultry Sci. 90: 914-921.

Sudarman, A., M. Muttakin, & H. Nuraini. 2014. Penambahan sabun-kalsium dari minyak ikan lemuru dalam ransum: 2 pengaruhnya terhadap sifat kimia dan fisik daging domba. JITV 19: 133-139.

Tao, X., & H. Xin. 2003. Acute synergistic effects of air temperature, humidity, and velocity on homeostasis of market–size broilers. Transactions of the ASAE 46: 491.

Tijare, V., F. Yang, V. Kuttappan, C. Alvarado, C. Coon, & C. Owens. 2016. Meat quality of broiler breast fillets with white striping and woody breast muscle myopathies. Poultry Sci.: 1-7.

Toufektsian, M.-C., P. Salen, F. Laporte, C. Tonelli, & M. De Lorgeril. 2011. Dietary flavonoids increase plasma very long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in rats. The Journal of Nutrition 141: 37-41.

Vanhonacker, F., W. Verbeke, E. Van Poucke, S. Buijs, & F. A. Tuyttens. 2009. Societal concern related to stocking density, pen size and group size in farm animal production. Livestock Sci. 123: 16-22.

Warriss, P. D. 2001. Meat Science. CABI, Oxfordshire.

Zuowei, S., L. Yan, L. Yuan, H. Jiao, Z. Song, Y. Guo, & H. Lin. 2011. Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion. Poultry Sci. 90: 1406-1415.