Vol. 2 No. 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Wood products exposed outdoor could be weathered, especially in the tropical region with high in sun light intensity, rain intensity, and relative humidity. An effort that could be done to protect and enhance wood performance is finishing. The purpose of this research is to understand the durability of finishing layer of the finished wood exposed outdoor. The effects of surface condition of boards (planed and unplaned), sawing pattern (quarter sawn and plain sawn), and type of wood finishes (Ultran Lasur UV and Ultran Politur P-03 UV) were studied. The experimental results showed that finishing layer of Meranti batu was the lowest in durability. The results also indicated that durability of finishing layer depicted by unplanned and plain sawn boards were lower than that of the planed and quarter sawn board. The finishing layer was considered to provide a good protection to the surfaces of board against failures. The presence of failure due to microbial disfigurement and cracking on the surfaces of the finished samples (in average) were 15% and 18% consecutively. On the other hand, the percentages of failure were observed to be 95% due to microbial disfigurement and 81% due to cracking for the unfinished wood. Comparing the two exterior wood finishes used in this experiment, it was found that Ultran Politur P-03 UV provided almost the same protection against microbial disfigurement and cracking compared to Ultran Lasur UV.
Keywords : Exterior finishing layer, microbe stain, surface crack, surface check
Appearance of extractives matter as oil-form on wood surface has been causing problems in wood working, especially for laminated wood products and finishing. The problem of extractives on the oily keruing was observed to get the way how to overcome it so the wood utilization able to be increased by laminated wood manufacturing. The effect of the treatments on the oily keruing as laminated wood material has been done by boiling in the water, boiling in diesel fuel and cooking oil mixture, and press-vacuum with paraffin addition. Comparison was done for inter-treatment and also to non oily keruing. The materials used were oily (Dipterocarpus gracilis), non oily (Dipterocarpus grandifloris) keruing and tannin-base glue. The observed parameters consist of visual appearance, moisture content, density, bonding strength and delaminating. Results indicated that moisture content of all treatment were not more than 15%, density range of 0.71-0.91 g/cm3 and average 0.79 g/cm3. The bonding strength of laminated wood ranges varied from 17.80 kg/cm2 to 37.73 kg/cm2 nd average 26.44 kg/cm2 (dry testing) and 1.81 kg/cm2-13.97 kg/cm2 and average 9.15 kg/cm2 (wet testing), while the delaminating ranges of 41.19% to 52.85% and average 45.52%. Generally, the treatment of boiling in mixture of diesel fuel and cooking oil with 6 : 1 in proportion, resulted increasing properties for laminated wood made of oily keruing.
Keywords : Extractives, oily keruing, tannin, laminated wood
Black streak discolorations in the heartwood of teak (Tectona grandis) may lead to considerable economic loss. Unfortunately, the actual properties of the discolored wood remain unknown as yet. In this paper, the influence of wood extractives on black streaked heartwood color was evaluated by successive solvent extraction (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and hot-water) and color measurement (CIELab system). The change in color co-ordinates, difference in brightness (DL*), difference in redness (Da*), and difference in yellowness (Db*), between sucessively extracted and control sample was also calculated. Color of black streaked heartwood changed by any solvents, whereas n-hexane and ethyl acetate extractions apparently increased the brightness L* values. Extraction with methanol and hot water slightly affected the color differences. However, some differences were still observed in the color properties between the black streaked and normal heartwood, indicating that some substances are polymeric and tightly bound to the cell wall matrix. Some quinones : tectoquinone, tectol, lapachol, desoxylapachol and its isomer, were detected as major compounds by means of GC-MS in the n-hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracts. The involvement of those compounds, thus, to the blackening heartwood should be investigated in the future studies.
Investigation of mold and blue stain fungi on rattan was conducted at the rattan industry, Cileungsi, Bogor on February 2005. The isolation and identification of fungi on rattan samples was done at the laboratory of Forest Pathology, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia. Rattan samples are cutted in size each 2 cm. Samples were growth and incubated on medium PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) for 7 days in 29°C. There are two treatment, surface sterilized is used alcohol 70 % and non surface sterilized. Each treatment was replicated 4 times. The identification of fungi was done manually using identification book Barnett (1986). The results showed that fungi dominantly formed from sterilized samples of rattan were Monilia sp. (55%) and Rhizophus sp. (32.5%). Whereas from non sterilized samples were Rhizophus sp. (54.77%) and than Monilia sp. (30.95%).
Keywords : Rattan, Monilia sp., Rhizophus sp., mold fungi, blue stain fungi.
Soldier from subterranean termites Coptotermes curvignathus eject a poison secretions as a defensive secretions to overcome their enemy. This research aimed to evaluation the toxicity of soldier defensive secretions extract in aquabidestilata, ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane solutions against Odontoponera denticulata ants. Filter paper with 200 µl extract were exposure to ants for 14 day. The first time ants mortality and time for all ants mortality were recorded. Result of the research showed that the first time ants mortality was on ethanol extract (15 minutes after exposure), then followed on ethyl acetate extract, n-hexane extract and aquabidestilata extract for 30, 35 and 40 minutes respectively.The faster time for all ants mortality was on ethanol extract (54 hour), then followed by ethyl acetate extract, n-hexane extract and aquabidestilata extract for 74, 79 and 82 hour respectively. GCMS analysis showed that the bioactive compound on ethanol extract were pentadecanal and tetradecanal.
Keywords : Soldier defensive secretions, toxicity, Coptotermes curvignathus, Odontoponera denticulata
The development of baiting system was very advanced, however it was very expensive thus the use of it was limited on certain community. Based on those conditions, it was needed a researches on local resourches basis or low cost material baiting system in order to be applicated in building protection included simple home. This researches consisted of laboratory and field test. The laboratory test was performed to determine preference baiting media (pulp, sawdust, Pinus merkusii wood, WMD (wood monitoring devices) from Pinus radiata and reliability tested between disodium borax decahydrate and chitosan against Coptotermes curvignathus. After the determination of baiting system and reliability, field test was performed on termite attacked building. Field test consisted of termite presence detection,observatory station, determination of consumption rate and baiting system resistance. The laboratory results showed the most preference baiting system was WMD with persentage weight loss was 40.5%. The comparation of reliability between disodium borax decahydrate and chitosan showed that termite mortality of disodium borax decahydrate was higher than chitosan, meanwhile reliability results showed oltherwise. Chitosan field test showed eating consumption level was decreasing at 75th days and on 135th days eating consumption level was rached 15 gr/day. It meaned there was a decreasing of termite population cause of termite baiting system.
Keywords : Pulp, disodium borax, chitosan, baiting, Coptotermes curvignathus
The aim of this study was to evaluate dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) of woods after tested those natural durability. Field tests by grave yard test were applied to prove the natural durability of jackfruit and mangium woods in ground contact. The method of non-destructive testing based on ultrasonic wave propagation was carried out to define ultrasonic velocity than that used for evaluating MOEdyn. The result showed that ultrasonic velocity of jackfruit and mangium woods decreased 3% and 0.5%, respectively after field test. There was a significant difference of MOEdyn value between before and after natural durability testings