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Issue Title
 
Vol 33, No 1 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana

The research has been conducted in border area of Timor Tengah Utara Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur, and Oekusi Enclave District, East Timor.  The objective of the research is to analyze the center for development of agropolitan.  The method use were AHP,LQ, SSA, I-O and descriptive statistic analysis.  The result showed that subdistrict Miomafo Timur is center for agropolitan development located in the border area of District Enclave Oekusi.  It is suggested that it is a need to develop mutual and networking with other region in Timor Tengah Utara Regency and Oekusi Enclave District.

 

Key words: boundary area,agropolitan
Abstract   PDF
Werenfridus Taena, Ernan Rustiadi, Himawan Hariyoga
 
Vol 31, No 1 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

Transmigration program has been done for many years. However, many transmigration sites are identified as underdeveloped, especially in upland farm transmigration site laboured with food crops. The main constraint for such development relates with the limit of upland resource in supporting plant growth. The upland resources is generally marginal in physical properties (undulating, wavy and hilly topography); the poor quality in land clearing which cause removal upper layer and loss of organic matter; relatively high rainfall intensity which causes the high erosivity. Such degradation has caused accumulation of problem for farmer. This research in erosion is done in order to know the strategy needed to be done. This research is done in Rantau Pandan SP 1 as case study. Several methods have been applied to determine 1) the amount of erosions 2) the permissible erosion, 3) the spatial pattern of erosion,and 4) the soil conservation action.

 

Key words: upland farming system, erosion, conservation
Abstract   PDF
Benar Darius Ginting, Muhammad Syamsul Maarif, Surjono H. Sutjahjo, Hermanto Siregar
 
Vol 32, No 2 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana

This research to study relation between environment parameter, plankton abundance and primary productivity with abundance of tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry, calculates plankton predating rate speed by tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry and other larva and studies plankton population dynamics, tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry before, at the time and after peak season.  Result of research indicates that some environment parameters significant differs according to observation period and season.  Highest abundance of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva reaches to 29067, 7733 and 54400 ind/1000 m3. Highest grazing rate to population of phytoplankton and plankton (phytoplankton + zooplankton) found when predator consisted of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva with grazing rate up to 125 cells/liter/hour and 129 plankter /liter/hour respectively.  Highest predating rate to zooplankton population when predator consist of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and there is phytoplankton as their prey up to 12 individual/liter/hour.  The certain plankton species significant correlation and estimated as natural food of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry that is some types of diatom and crustaceae from zooplankton.  Plankton population dynamics especially controlled by predator by tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva, while influence of environment parameter is small relative. Abundance of each phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 583-28563 cells/liter and 22-3413 ind/liter.  Average abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton significant differs higher at peak season compare  before and after tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry season. Predator-prey relation between phytoplankton and zooplankton shows phase change which succession between phytoplankton controls to zooplankton phases with zooplankton control to phytoplankton.  Abundance of plankton influences abundance of population of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry especially after peak season.  There is concordance of time between peak abundance of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and other larva with peak abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

 

Key words : population dynamics, predating, predating rate, predator, prey, phytoplankton, zooplankton, tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry, other larva, Pinrang

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Nur Asia Umar, Richardus F. Kaswadji, Ario Damar, Ismudi Muchsin, I Wayan Nurjaya
 
Vol 34, No 1 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

A laboratory scale research to obtain environmentally safe effluent from Final Waste Disposal Site leachate in Galuga owned by Regional Government of Bogor City was conducted from July 2006 through to April 2007. The experiment of production tolerable threshold effluent was carried out by aerating the leachate in 4 different aeration rates (0, 10, 30 and 70 liters/minute).  The research found that the most effective method to reduce pollutant was aerating at the rate of 70 liters/minutes.  However, only some of pollutant (Cu, Zn, Pb and E.coli) can be reduced until below tolerable threshold.

 

Keywords: effluent, leachate, tolerable threshold

Abstract   PDF
Nurhasanah ., Latifah K. Darusman, Surjono Hadi Sutjahjo, Bibiana Widiati Lay
 
Vol 34, No 1 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

One major river flowing through Bekasi City is Bekasi river. Total extent of the Bekasi watershed is about 39.045 ha, in 2002 with rainfall of 250 mm for 8 hours caused about 138 ha flooded in residents area for 2-3 days in Bekasi City, more extremely in 2005 with rainfall only 127 mm  for 6 hours caused about 164 ha flooded in residents area for 3 days.  This evidence showed that flood problem in Bekasi City is become worse, and seem to be more horrifying in the future. Therefore, the flood problem needs an extremely great attention.  The objectives of the research is (1) analysis watershed condition; (2) analysis of the causes of flood over Bekasi City from the perpective of hydrology and hydraulic; (3) plan of Bekasi watershed management to reduce flood risk in Bekasi City.  To obtain the purposes of this research, the method of analysis is devided into four main subjects: (1) analysis of watershed condition using SCS method; (2) hydrology analysis using hydrology modeling HEC-HMS; (3) river flow capacity using hydraulic modeling HEC-RAS and (4) plan of scenarios to reduce flood risk.  There are four scenarios to overcome the flood problems: (1) similarly with government plan 2010;(2) managing Bekasi watershed area with conservation tillage; (3) build water retarded structure entire of  watershed and;(4) combination of second and third scenarios.  The research results shown that river flow capacity only 462 m3/s is not enough to flow the discharges, otherwise the land use is change and increasing the run off in upstream.  Based on the problems, it is expected to overcome the flood problem by managing Bekasi watershed area with conservation tillage and build water retarded structure.  It will reduce 28.58% of the discharge run off in 2020.

 

Key words: flood, land use changing, watershed management

Abstract   PDF
Trihono Kadri, Naik Sinukaban, Hidayat Pawitan, Suria Darma Tarigan
 
Vol 34, No 1 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

Sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) is a tropical plant adapted to marginal land such as fresh water swamp, peat swamp or brackish water.  The objective of the researche is to identify physical and chemical habitat characteristics of sago palm in the Seram island, Maluku.  The research was conducted in nine months from March to November 2009.  The observation was conducted at three samples area, namely Luhu (West Seram District), Sawai (Central Maluku District), and Werinama (East Seram  District).  Soil and water samples were taken at samples area and analyzed at Soil Research Center Laboratory, Bogor.  Result showed that sago palm at the Seram island can be found at four different habitat types, namely: 1) upland habitat/dry land, 2) temporary inundated fresh water swamp, 3) temporary inundated brackish water, and 4) permanent inundated fresh water swamp.  Soil texture of these habitats characterized by clay-loam and silty-clay with average bulk density of about 1.20.  The soil has acidic reaction that consists of medium soil organic and having medium cation exchange capacity (CEC).  Except for Fe and Alwhich were high, the nutrient content of the soil was very low. Salinity of water was less than 1.0 ppt (part per thousand).  Nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-) and other cation such us NH4+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were found relatively high in water.  Micro climate condition under sago stands (clump of Sago) such us temperature, relative humidity, and sun radiation intensity are low with very narrow fluctuation.  Micro-climate conditions were characterized by temperature ranging from 22,69oC to 23,94oC, meanwhile relative humidity ranging from 87,97 to 91,60%.  In case of  sun light intensity at near clump of sago palm reached of about 206,53 lux (12,40%).

 

Keywords: habitat type, Metroxylon spp., land, micro climate, Seram Island

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Samin Botanri, Dede Setiadi, Edi Guhardja, Ibnul Qayim, Lilik B. Prasetyo
 
Vol 33, No 2 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana

The purposes of this research were, (1) to analyze fiscal policy impact on food security performance and (2) to determine strategic policy on food security in North Sumatera Province.  Model of fiscal policy in North Sumatera Province which was built with the dynamic simultaneous equations system and used 2SLS with SYSLIN and SIMNLIN procedures.  In this study we also used pooled data in 1990-2007 period.  The results of this study showed that (1) factors of  fiscal performance in North Sumatera, i.e. local tax and tax sharing were influenced by local GDP positively, otherwise general alocation funds and local retribution were not  influenced by local GDP; (2) during fiscal policy, food security performance increased, which was interpreted with increasing on live expectation age, decreasing infant mortality number, and malnutrition number; (3) in simulation section, decreasing of illiteracy and health expenditure gave better impact on food security and also increasing local GDP than other simulation.  Fiscal policy, especially in health and education sector, will stimulate quality social life in the future.

 

Key words: local fiscal policy, food security, simultaneous equations

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Boyke T. H. Situmorang, Harianto ., Mangara Tambunan, Nunung Kusnadi
 
Vol 34, No 2 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

This research interests to analyze factors affecting the organizational culture and job satisfaction and how far it affects the organizational commitment of the administrative staff of Indonesia open university (UT). This research uses a sample of 150 administrative staff in the main office to represent the entire class based on the existing population by using stratified random sampling method. Data obtained were analyzed by using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the help of LISREL 8.30 software. SEM analysis results reveal that the factors influencing the UT’s organizational culture are leaders appreciate ideas, accommodate ideas and suggestions, good ideas are not always responded by the top level for the leaders are not close enough to employees, institutions award when problems solved, leaders receive wise advice, institutions specifically encourage improvements in the workplace, and expects to increase and practice the valid work unit procedures. The factors that influence the job satisfaction in UT are being satisfied with the remuneration paid, promotion opportunities, praise, leaders’ skills, leaders’ assertive acts, the work environment, and coworker relationships. Organizational culture and job satisfaction have directly and significantly positive effect on organizational commitment of the UT’s administration staff. These findings indicate that the more adaptive organizational culture and the higher job satisfaction, the higher organizational commitment for UT’s administrative staff.

 

Key words: organizational culture, job satisfaction, organizational commitment
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Nenah Sunarsih, Sri Hartoyo, Sukiswo Dirdjosuparto
 
Vol 32, No 2 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) becomes a public health concern in developed countries which associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) in human and Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants.  Some researchers in Europe, USA, and Australia detected MAP in the dairy products and showed the relationship among MAP, CD, and JD.  Meanwhile Indonesia imported milk and milk products from those countries to cover national demand.  In the future it will be a potential problem to national dairy herd and human health.  The aim of this study is to detect MAP in the growing up milk formula.  Fifty samples from five established distributors were taken in Bogor.  Some diagnostic methods were used parallel in this study, namely Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), Herrold’s Egg Yolk enrichment with mycobactine-J (HEYM) and polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) with insertion sequence IS 900 and F 57 as primer.  Neither MAP grew up in MGIT and HEYM after 20 weeks of incubation period. No positive samples were found by conventional PCR using IS 900 and F57 either but 5 samples were detected positive by nested PCR F57.  Although there was no evidence of MAP grew from the samples in this study, the comprehensive and sustainable studies on MAP still should be carried out with more and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP and to anticipate it in Indonesia.

 

Key words: mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, growing up milk formula, PCR

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Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Mirnawati Sudarwanto, Denny Widaya Lukman, Surachmi Setyaningsih, Rochman Naim, Ewald Usleber
 
Vol 31, No 3 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

The establishment process of Gunung Halimun National Park resulted in tenurial insecurity for local people, farmers, and hunters.  This condition leads to the open conflict between local people and the government.  One of the issues that make local people fight for is their rights to have an access and control toward the resources.  As a development model of sustainable tourism, ecotourism has been used to respond this type of conflict.  The aims of this study were to evaluate whether or not the ecotourism development in the case study perform the ideal criteria of ecotourism concept and to determine how the existing institutional arrangement support the fulfillment of the criteria.  Two analytical methods were used to achieve these goals.  They were analysis of the performance of ecotourism criteria and institutional analysis of ecotourism development (consists of stakeholder analysis, need analysis and policy analysis).  The results of ecotourism assessment showed that the ecotourism development in the case study do not fulfill the ideal criteria of ecotourism.  While the result of institutional analysis indicated three main findings, namely, insufficient rules and policy to guide ecotourism development, unequal role between stakeholders of ecotourism development, and lack of accountability in implementing the roles in the study area.  This study suggests that in order to perform the ideal ecotourism development, stakeholders should develop agreed local ecotourism policy, reinforce existing organization and improve the capacity of human resources.

 

Key words: ecotourism, institution, national park, policy analysis, qualitative analysis

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Sudhiani Pratiwi, Hadi S. Alikodra, Soehartini Sekartjakrarini, Hariadi Kartodihardjo
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

In recent years, there has been an increasing an abuse of slaughtered death chicken for human consumption, so it is important to find a practice ways to identify it. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the quality of meat taken from slaughtered death chicken can be detected through quality attributes of meat (Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear value, CIE L* a* b* color, and histological changes.  Thirty pieces of breast (M. pectoralis) and thigh (M. biceps femoris) meat were obtained from commercial slaughtering house.  The samples were classified into three groups namely halal slaughtered chicken (AHS), slaughtered death chicken (AMS), and slaughtered stressed chicken (ALS) and all samples processed for microscopic observations, for WB value and color after 1, 5 and 9 h postmortem (PM).  This study showed that percentage of degenerated and necrotic muscle fibres of breast and thigh meat of AMS and ALS were significantly higher (P<0.05) than AHS.  The WB values of all samples were nearly similar (P>0.05).  The L* value of breast and thigh meat of AMS and ALS were lower whereas a* value of breast and thigh meat of AMS were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of AHS and ALS.  The muscle fiber interstitial space had significant positive correlation with degenerated muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.52), necrotic muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.57) of breast meat, and also with degenerated muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.68) and necrotic muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.56) of thigh meat.  The biologic parameters can be used to distinguish between the slaughtered death chicken and halal slaughtered chicken.

 

Key words: meat quality, muscle fiber, slaughtered death chicken, L* a* b* value
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Razali ., Denny W. Lukman, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Mirnawati Sudarwanto
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

In the framework of regional development, only few of villages which developed by transmigration program expands as Indonesian government expected.  Some problems are remote location with poor access, unfertile soil, and lack of supported socioeconomic infrastructure to develop farm enterprises.  This research aims to analyze a growth of countryside level, agriculture activity, a society participation and aspiration, and to compile an area development instruction. The result shows that Bukit Makmur countryside has the highest hierarchy.  As far as village area from the service center, it has a lower growth of countryside level. Most of people in the village hope to participate in development of their region, especially in developing of prime commodity such as oil palm which is plant in second arable land  through a partnership with some investors which is facilitated by the government.  East Kutai local government policy in developing area stated that Kaliorang transmigration area as a part of development area of Sangsaka Agropolitan.  Infrastructure especially in transportation is a main problem, because of in developing area as an agribusiness district needs a supporting infrastructure upgrading and development and transportation facilities.

 

Key words: Kaliorang transmigration area, prime commodity, infrastructure development
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Nurharyadi ., Endriatmo Sutarto, Santun R.P. Sitorus
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

Inorganic farming practices could have negative impact on environmental degradation due to excessive usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.  One of many efforts to re-establish land productivity and reduce environmental degradation is by way of practising organic farming.  The objective of this study is to explore and develop organic farming micro enterprise system supported by micro finance institution and its implication on relevant policies.  The methods used in this study include soft system methodology approach utilizing total system intervention (TSI) mechanism that covers the principles of complementarism, social awareness and emancipation, and commitment to human well-being in the context of poverty alleviation.  The techniques being adopted include business feasibility, comparative performance index, strategic asumption surfacing test and analytical hierarchy process.  Case study was conducted in Garut regency, West Java.  The performance of organic farming activity in Garut regency is considered adequate while the most preferable micro finance institution supporting agricultural sector is the saving and loan unit from cooperative organization, but on the other hand the micro banking sector has not been attracted in general to extend credit financing to agricultural sector due mainly to risk factor.  Eventually this study has been able to introduce a concept of empowering micro enterprise in organic farming involving credit guarantee institution, technical assistance and production of organic fertilizers and pesticides. In view of enhancing the financing of organic farming, the concept of credit for microenterprise in organic farming is introduced for further development and implementation.  Furthermore the policy implication of this study is iniciatives for poverty reduction trust fund and coordinating institution for micro financing institutions and the relevant law governing micro credit and micro finance institutions.

 

Key words: organic farming, fertilizer, pesticide, micro enterprise, micro credit, micro finance institution
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Bambang S. Kusmuljono, Eriyatno ., Bunasor Sanim, Gunawan Sumodiningrat
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

Bacteria are microbes which have an ability to live wherever there is a life.  Some of the bacteria are saprophyte and some are parasitic. But most of the bacteria have not been identified or cultured; therefore the benefits are still unknown.  Methanogenic bacteria are one of the saprophyte bacteria. These bacteria produces methane, a biogas as an alternative fuel in the future.  Most of methanogenic bacteria are uncultured, however a few of them are found in the sewage of coconut water.  The objectives of this research are to isolate, characterize and identify the methanogenic bacteria that lived in coconut water.  The method of this research was fermentation, analysis characterization, and identification of methanogenic bacteria. First, methanogenic bacteria were isolated from coconut water by fermentation.  The samples were from four places in Minahasa, which are Rasi (I), Koka (II), Amurang (III), and Lola (IV) and one place in Bogor (V). Secondly, the methane produced from fermentation was analysed by gas chromatography and the bacteria can be characterized by Bergey’s method. The next step is the identification which was conducted by isolating  the DNA, amplifying the DNA by PCR, then sequencing the DNA with BioEdit Sequence Aligment.  As the result, high and stable  methane was produced in Rasi (I) and Amurang (III). The characteristic of the bacteria are red colony (M) and white colony (P). The shape of the colonies is circles, gram positive, basil shape, mesofile, positive of catalase and citrate, positive of sugar fermentation, gelatin, casein and starch hydrolysis also lived in Nutrient Broth with pH 5.7-6.8.  The sequencing of isolate P resulting in nucleotide  composition of G 31.25%, C 20.58%, A 27.11% and T 21.04%  while isolate M are   G 31.34%, C 20.31%, A 27.02% and T 21.32%.  The identification of isolate M is equal with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (100 %) and isolate P is very close with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (99 %).

 

Key words: bacteria, methane, coconut water
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Ardi Kapahang, Maria Bintang, D.D. Sastraatmadja, Dedy Duryadi Solichin
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

Municipal solid waste or MSW has potency to be decomposed by microorganisms and trasformed into compost.  The waste contains 60%-75% of organic materials C, H, O, and N.  The aim of this research was to develop a simulation model based on mathematical equations describing the phenomenon of the  composting.  The population of  microorganisms , the rate of  O2 consumption , the rate of CO2 production , the rate of H2O production, the rate of carbon nitrogen ratio or C/N, and temperature were the variables tested in this research.  Validation was carried out by comparing datum of simulation model with datum of composting.  Simulation model was declared valid if the values of each parameter were  r2 > 0.75, the  total value of Err was closed  to zero, and the distribution of Err was independent to time.  The sensitivity test was analyzed by comparing the value changes of variable tied with the value changes of free variable.  Correction from the simulation model in predicting the microorganism population, CO2, O2, and temperature  could be  expressed  respectively  as  y’ = 1.06(y-1.003),  y’ = 1.07(y+ 0.07), y’ = 1.02(y+ 0.05), and y’ = 1.02(y - 1.05).  The temperature, the C/N and the rate of  O2 consumption were sensitive to the changes of microorganism population and the radius of the bioreactor.

 

Key words: composting, organic materials, simulation, bioreactor
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Yohanes Setiyo, Hadi K. Purwadaria, Arief Sabdo Yuwono, M. Ahkam Subroto
 
Vol 30, No 1 (2007): Forum Pascasarjana

This research aimed to study status of arbuscular mycrorrhizal fungus (AMF) in mangrove and coastal forest post-tsunami disaster, and to study the relationship of soil phosphorus content and number of AMF spores and AMF infection of mangrove and coastal forest post tsunami disaster.  Research results show that there were variability in spore numbers in the field studied.  The spore numbers in mangrove forest were found as 359, 235, 118 and 160 spores per 50 g of soil in Meulaboh, Banda Aceh, Pidie and Nias respectively.  Meanwhile, in coastal forest were 587, 297, 265 and 158 spores per 50 g in Meulaboh, Banda Aceh, Pidie and Nias respectively.  The root of Rhizophora sp.  and Casuarina equisetifolia were colonized by AMF both in mangrove and coastal forest.  Number of spores were negatively correlated to soil phosphorus content, however, there were tendency of positive correlation between root infection and soil phosphorus content.

 

Key words: coastal forest, mangrove forest, mycorrhiza

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AAboe B. Saidi, Sri Wilarso Budi R., Cecep Kusmana
 
Vol 31, No 4 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

Soil and water conservation treatment have a significant effect on value of C factor and soil erosion.  Vegetatif conservation treatment aimed to reduce of both C factor and soil erosion of the cacao cropping system.  The decrease of both C factor and soil erosion were affected by density of crop canopy and plant rows in counter line, with organic matter addition from system mentioned above.  Experimental method with field study was applied in split plot design consisting three factors, namely (i) slope consisting two levels (10-15% and 40-45%) and (ii) age of the cacao plant consisting two levels (5 to 7 month and 25 to 27 month) were used as main plots (P1 = 5 to 7 month and 10-15%; P2 = 25 to 27 month and 10-15%; P3 = 5 to 7 month and 40-45%;  and P4 = 25 to 27 month and 40-45%), while (iii) vegetatif conservation treatment was used as sub plots consisting three levels, i.e T1 = cacao with disc clearing, T2 = dry field rice and soybean rotation within cacao plants, T3 = T2 + Arachis pintoi as strip plant.  There was not interaction between both cacao plant and slope treatment  with vegetatif conservation treatment to value of C factor and soil erosion.  The value of  C factor in cacao plant and slope treatment P3 (0,43) was significantly different with P4 (0,37). The value of C factor in the vegetatif conservation treatment T1 (0,25) was significantly lower (P < 0,05) than T2 (0,55) and T3 (0,39).  Soil erosion in cacao plant and slope treatment P2 (15,99 ton.ha-1.year-1) was significantly lower than P1, P3, and P4.  Furthermore, soil erosion in the vegetatif conservation treatment T1 (12,95 ton ha-1 year-1) was significantly lower than T2 and T3.  Data analysis with ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (P < 0,05) were done by using SAS program.

 

Key words: cacao, erosion, the value of C factor
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Nurmi Hafid, Oteng Haridjaja, Sitanala Arsyad, Sudirman Yahya
 
Vol 32, No 1 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana

Cacao plant is one of the major commodity of plantation in South East Sulawesi, especially in Konawe regency.  Practices of land management implemented by the local cacao farmers in many cases are not in accordance to soil and water conservation principles until caused of soil degradation.  The research was aimed to investigate the alteration of soil physics properties on the local farmers cacao cropping land at different slope as related to canopy cover.  The research was conducted in Amosilu Village, Besulutu District, Konawe Regency, the Province of South East Sulawesi, from December 2006 to September 2007.  The experimental method with field study was applied in split plot design consisting of three factors, namely (i) slope consisting of two levels (10-15% and 40-45%) and (ii) age of the cacao plant consisting of two levels (5 to 7 months and 25 to 27 months) were used as main plots (P1 = 5 to 7 months and 10-15%; P2 = 25 to 27 months and 10-15%; P3 = 5 to 7 months and 40-45%; and P4 = 25 to 27 months and 40-45%), while (iii) vegetatif conservation treatment was used as sub plots consisting of three levels, i.e T1 = cacao with disc clearing, T2 = dry field rice and soybean rotation within cacao plant, T3 = T2 + Arachis pintoi as strip plant.  There was not interaction between both cacao plant and slope treatment with vegetative conservation treatment to soil physics properties, exception on aggregate stability index.  The result showed that vegetative conservation treatment (T1) that is cacao with disc clearing was best alternative because they implied the higher rate of total porosity (61,8%) and the lower rate of bulk density (1,013 g cm-3) as soon as the raising of aggregate stability index as well.

 

Key words: cacao, canopy cover, conservation, soil physics properties
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Nurmi ., Oteng Haridjaja, Sitanala Arsyad, Sudirman Yahya
 
Vol 31, No 4 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

Credit aid programs can be used as a mean to improve the contribution of fishery sector. The impact of such credit on traditional fisheries was determined on the fishery productivity and their traditional fisherman income in Sulawesi Tengah Province.  The research result showed that the credit was needed as an additional capital for the fishery sustainability.  With such credit, the productivity of the fisheries increased as shown by sufficiently high incremental benefit which the fishermen achieved.  The credit also affected the fisherman household in making decision related to such economic behaviors as productivity activities, working time, income and expenditure.  Thus these behaviors were analyzed using an econometric approach with a simultaneous equation.

 

Key words: tradisional fisheries, household economics behavior, credit, policy of developing fishery catch

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Dewi Nur Asih, Harianto ., Nunung Kusnadi
 
Vol 34, No 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

Environmental conflicts in protection forest mostly caused by issues of scarcity, negative externalities, structural unbalance, and different viewpoint of people on value of forests. In many cases, forest governance creates overlapping policies regarding with these issues that may generate conflict escalation; this occurs in Register 45B of Protection Forest Zone in Lampung Province.  This research aimed to study (1) factors those affecting (escalation of) conflict, (2) conflict management styles manifested by parties/disputants, (3) polarization of parties refer to the conflict roots they face, and (4) settlement options that parties willing to take referring to alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options.  Research implementation and analysis carried out by using pathway analysis and pairwise comparison analysis-scheffe test.  The research found that conflict escalation was mainly caused by decision to convert forest land use. Conflict management styles are collaborative and compromise.  Polarizations of parties refer to similarities on interests.  All parties willing to take negotiation and/or facilitation as ADR options to settle disputes.

 

Key words: conflict, environment, forest, resolution

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Gamal Pasya, Kooswardhono Mudikdjo, Sediono M.P. Tjondronegoro, Cecep Kusmana, Siti Nurbaya
 
Vol 34, No 3 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana

Financial and non-financial factors are important indicators to evaluate performance of corporation.  The main objective of this study is to build a model for improving performance of estate and plant by using balance scorecard.  The study uses balance scorecard, and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to model the criteria of performance measurement for both estate and plant.  Results generated from the model of estate performance criteria measurements are seed, fertilizing, cost management, harvest, plant maintenance, production, and employee development.  Results generated from the model of plant performance criteria measurements are production rate, cost management, losses, plant utilization, CPO quality, employee development, and environmental friendly production process.  Estate and plant scoring board model are used to measure the performance of estate and plant based on set targets.  Results generated from estate scoring board model are low performance in cost management, production, and employed development.  Results generated from plant scoring board model are low performance in cost management, losses, and environmental friendly production process.  Performance improvement model for estate and plant are conducted by using expert management.  The result generated from this study is a software of decision support system by using expert management, and it is called In-KK v1.00.

 

Keywords: oil palm agroindustry, key performance indicator, scoring board

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Aida Farida, Irawadi Jamaran, A. Aziz Darwis, Khaswar Syamsu, Yandra Arkeman
 
Vol 31, No 3 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

Groundwater in the District of Wajo is stored in Siwa-Pompanua basin covering an area of 93,900 ha and discharge of around 379 millions m3/yr.  The groundwater is utilized to irrigate rain-fed rice fields privately by farmers by means of wells.  The distance between wells and pumping rate are designed without considering the characteristics of the aquifer and adequate irrigation management so that damage in environment might occur and consequently farming might not be sustainable.  A research was conducted with the objectives to study the aquifer characteristics and to develop environmentally friendly groundwater management.  Mathematical models were developed by combining equations of conservation of fluid mass (continuity equations) and Darcy’s law, whereas models of groundwater management were based on crop water requirement and aquifer characteristics.  Test of the model resulted in coefficient of determination equal to 0.848 for the prediction of the drawdown groundwater head.  The result of the model optimization indicated the optimum discharge of each of the wells was different.  One of the wells had a the biggest discharge of 1,268.33 m3/day irrigating 27.58 ha and one other  of the wells had a the smallest discharge of 279.54 m3/day irrigating 6.08 ha of paddy fields based on the irrigation water requirement of 45.99 m3/ha.day.  The reasonable minimum area (ha) determined with equation of power function in x, where x are irrigated hours per season.  For one of planting season/yr, the coefficients of the power (α) equal to 0.0123 and the power functions (β) equal to 0.7247, while for two of planting season/yr with α equal to 0.0047 and β equal to 0.8413.

 

Key words: sustainable groundwater utilization, paddy field irrigation, groundwater management model
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Suhardi ., Hidayat Pawitan, Budi Indra Setiawan, Roh Santoso B. Waspodo
 
Vol 32, No 4 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana

Growth of Makassar City as metropolitan have been increasing urban economic growth and social community change, however, it caused problems non-bus public passenger transport management policy not integrated with urban spatial planning policy as one unity.  Research objectives are aimed to design model of sustainable transportation management for non-bus public passenger transport integrated with urban spatial planning, to evaluate existing route pattern performance and to identify and to manage potentially polluted corridor from emission gas.  Research methods consist of three phases namely valuating of route performance with descriptive analysis, identifying gas emission and zoning management with level of services, hierarchy analytical process (AHP), and designing priority policy model with geographic information system (GIS) and exponential comparative method (MPE).  The results are: (i) the road level of services performance with the bigger traffic composition are motorcycle and non-bus public passenger transport and densities of primary roads as compared to secondary roads with level of services of C, B, and A for variation between collector and artery roads; (ii) vehicle emission as standard of very small as compared to step over standard and gas ambient by CO are sedan/jeep, kijang, pick-up, bus, non-bus public passenger transport and mini bus, and mini truck on the artery road, (iii) the priority alternatives on zoning arrangement are first for environmental facility improvement, vehicle arrangement, location decision, and institutions arrangement; (iv) model of sustainable transportation management with GIS is spatial database and transportation maps of selected route and zoning arrangement whereas policy priorities are regarding management aspect improving level of service which consider road capacity, real speed, and volume ratio and regarding policy aspect ascertaining spatial plan as a dominant factor for zoning arrangement in relation to vehicle pollution.

 

Key words: non-bus public passenger transport, sustainable, spatial, route, emission
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Umar Mansyur, Santun R.P. Sitorus, Marimin ., Lilik Budi Prasetyo, I.F. Poernomosidhi Poerwo
 
Vol 33, No 4 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana

Rice consumption contributes the largest spending among Indonesian. Meanwhile, the changing price of rice is influenced by national inflation. Increased in rice consumption is caused by the increase of population.  It is, therefore, clear that the problem of the rice price increament relates to rice demand and supply.  This research was aimed to analize (1) factors influenced the demand and supply of rice in Indonesia; (2) effectivity of government floor price purchasing policy (GFPPP) vis-à-vis brown rice price policy in frame of increasing rice production; (3) impact of GFPPP on rice demand and supply in Indonesia. The research used time series data ranging from the year of 1981 to 2005. Two stages least square (2SLS) method was used to analyze the data by means of SAS/ETS Version 6.12. It is concluded that the GFPPP increased rice supply in Indonesia. The GFPPP also increased rice price at farmer level and rice production, but decreased demand of the brown rice.  

 

Keywords: rice, supply demand, policy of base price purchasing of government
Abstract   PDF
Ria Kusumaningrum, Harianto ., Bonar M. Sinaga
 
Vol 31, No 2 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana

Since the 1970s, energy has been a significant product of forest-related biomass.  The use of wood to provide industrial heat and electricity has become important to the economic viability of the forest product and other industry.  Growing normally at marginal soil of mining area, Leuchaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Sesbandia grandiflora, Glirisidia maculate, Pterocarpus indica, Enterolobium cylocarpum, Hibiscus tiliaceus, and Gmelina arborea woods were analysed to investigate heat value and economic feasibility of their usage as coal substitution in cement production.  Examination on those woods species showed that mean of heat value in air dry condition was about 4.000 kcal/kg. As BC ratio is 2,07, then the mining plantation enterprise to provide fuel wood is feasible economically.

 

Key words: wood, heat value, feasibility

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Tekat Dwi Cahyono, Zahrial Coto, Fauzi Febrianto
 
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