Vol 30, No 1 (2007)

Forum Pascasarjana

ISSN 0126-1886

Table of Contents

Articles

Forum Pascasarjana
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Yohanes Setiyo, Hadi K. Purwadaria, Arief Sabdo Yuwono, M. Ahkam Subroto
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AAboe B. Saidi, Sri Wilarso Budi R., Cecep Kusmana
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Bacteria are microbes which have an ability to live wherever there is a life.  Some of the bacteria are saprophyte and some are parasitic. But most of the bacteria have not been identified or cultured; therefore the benefits are still unknown.  Methanogenic bacteria are one of the saprophyte bacteria. These bacteria produces methane, a biogas as an alternative fuel in the future.  Most of methanogenic bacteria are uncultured, however a few of them are found in the sewage of coconut water.  The objectives of this research are to isolate, characterize and identify the methanogenic bacteria that lived in coconut water.  The method of this research was fermentation, analysis characterization, and identification of methanogenic bacteria. First, methanogenic bacteria were isolated from coconut water by fermentation.  The samples were from four places in Minahasa, which are Rasi (I), Koka (II), Amurang (III), and Lola (IV) and one place in Bogor (V). Secondly, the methane produced from fermentation was analysed by gas chromatography and the bacteria can be characterized by Bergey’s method. The next step is the identification which was conducted by isolating  the DNA, amplifying the DNA by PCR, then sequencing the DNA with BioEdit Sequence Aligment.  As the result, high and stable  methane was produced in Rasi (I) and Amurang (III). The characteristic of the bacteria are red colony (M) and white colony (P). The shape of the colonies is circles, gram positive, basil shape, mesofile, positive of catalase and citrate, positive of sugar fermentation, gelatin, casein and starch hydrolysis also lived in Nutrient Broth with pH 5.7-6.8.  The sequencing of isolate P resulting in nucleotide  composition of G 31.25%, C 20.58%, A 27.11% and T 21.04%  while isolate M are   G 31.34%, C 20.31%, A 27.02% and T 21.32%.  The identification of isolate M is equal with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (100 %) and isolate P is very close with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (99 %).

 

Key words: bacteria, methane, coconut water
Ardi Kapahang, Maria Bintang, D.D. Sastraatmadja, Dedy Duryadi Solichin
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Binsar Nababan, Kamaruddin Abdullah, Armansyah H. Tambunan, A Harsono Soepardjo
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Inorganic farming practices could have negative impact on environmental degradation due to excessive usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.  One of many efforts to re-establish land productivity and reduce environmental degradation is by way of practising organic farming.  The objective of this study is to explore and develop organic farming micro enterprise system supported by micro finance institution and its implication on relevant policies.  The methods used in this study include soft system methodology approach utilizing total system intervention (TSI) mechanism that covers the principles of complementarism, social awareness and emancipation, and commitment to human well-being in the context of poverty alleviation.  The techniques being adopted include business feasibility, comparative performance index, strategic asumption surfacing test and analytical hierarchy process.  Case study was conducted in Garut regency, West Java.  The performance of organic farming activity in Garut regency is considered adequate while the most preferable micro finance institution supporting agricultural sector is the saving and loan unit from cooperative organization, but on the other hand the micro banking sector has not been attracted in general to extend credit financing to agricultural sector due mainly to risk factor.  Eventually this study has been able to introduce a concept of empowering micro enterprise in organic farming involving credit guarantee institution, technical assistance and production of organic fertilizers and pesticides. In view of enhancing the financing of organic farming, the concept of credit for microenterprise in organic farming is introduced for further development and implementation.  Furthermore the policy implication of this study is iniciatives for poverty reduction trust fund and coordinating institution for micro financing institutions and the relevant law governing micro credit and micro finance institutions.

 

Key words: organic farming, fertilizer, pesticide, micro enterprise, micro credit, micro finance institution
Bambang S. Kusmuljono, Eriyatno ., Bunasor Sanim, Gunawan Sumodiningrat
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Nurharyadi ., Endriatmo Sutarto, Santun R.P. Sitorus
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In recent years, there has been an increasing an abuse of slaughtered death chicken for human consumption, so it is important to find a practice ways to identify it. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the quality of meat taken from slaughtered death chicken can be detected through quality attributes of meat (Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear value, CIE L* a* b* color, and histological changes.  Thirty pieces of breast (M. pectoralis) and thigh (M. biceps femoris) meat were obtained from commercial slaughtering house.  The samples were classified into three groups namely halal slaughtered chicken (AHS), slaughtered death chicken (AMS), and slaughtered stressed chicken (ALS) and all samples processed for microscopic observations, for WB value and color after 1, 5 and 9 h postmortem (PM).  This study showed that percentage of degenerated and necrotic muscle fibres of breast and thigh meat of AMS and ALS were significantly higher (P<0.05) than AHS.  The WB values of all samples were nearly similar (P>0.05).  The L* value of breast and thigh meat of AMS and ALS were lower whereas a* value of breast and thigh meat of AMS were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of AHS and ALS.  The muscle fiber interstitial space had significant positive correlation with degenerated muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.52), necrotic muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.57) of breast meat, and also with degenerated muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.68) and necrotic muscle fiber (P<0.001, r=0.56) of thigh meat.  The biologic parameters can be used to distinguish between the slaughtered death chicken and halal slaughtered chicken.

 

Key words: meat quality, muscle fiber, slaughtered death chicken, L* a* b* value
Razali ., Denny W. Lukman, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Mirnawati Sudarwanto
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Forum Pascasarjana
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