Vol 31, No 4 (2008)

Forum Pascasarjana

Table of Contents

Articles

Forum Pascasarjana
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The change of environmental problem is very complex.  The highest population growth caused supply of land and natural resources to be increased.  If it does not control, it can influence natural resources stock and disturbs environmental balance system land use control is part of Bogor land use planning.  The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the dynamics of land use and population in the period of 1972-2005 in Bogor Municipality, (2) to develop dynamics model and analyze the relation between the instrument of land use control and the factors related to the sustaina tozbility of Bogor Municipality, and (3) to analyze stakeholders’ roles benefited to space control system in Bogor Municipality.  The methods used for this research were (1) GIS analysis to observe the alteration influence landcover in period 1972-2005, (2) dynamic system analysis for landcover using in Bogor Municipality, and (3) AHP analysis to observe stakeholders’ role controlling use of landcover in Bogor Municipality.  This research indicate that the dynamic of landcover such as forestry, mixed plantation, and open area (1972, 1983 and 1990) before to be extended were larger than after.  For the landcover change such as resettlement, bush, water and wetland showed that were larger than before extended (2000 and 2005).  The population dynamic analysis showed the optimum increasing on 1985-2020 (22,38%) but was not followed by good landcover use planning as indicated by forestry depletion from 25% to 2%, depletion of mixed plantation from 42% to 36%, resettlement need increased from 12% to 43%, and declining open area from 17% to 2%.  These showed that Bogor developments were unsustainable.  The dynamic analysis showed the correlation between the environmental component and land use control.  Land use control to achieve Bogor sustainable development need many aspect such as land area, population number waste number, vehicle number, the length of roads and the role of stakeholder on land use control system in Bogor municipality though license mechanism and control.  The government can influence land use control at level of controlling and level of licensing.  For the government input as the authority that gives the permission of land using need to be consistent on the regulation they made.

 

Key words: the dynamic, land use model, and controlling

Yadi Suryadi, Surjono H. Sutjahjo, Bunasor Sanim, Ernan Rustiadi, Soekmana Soma
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Through a nutritional improvement project, Bogor District had donated powdered milk formula (PMF) for severe malnutrition children under five years.  Powdered milk formula was assumed as an unsterilized product, because it might contain spore forming bacteria.  To evaluate the bacterial contaminant of home prepared milk formula, fourty eight samples of PMF, and 50 samples of reconstitution formula, drinking water, drinking equipment, and hand were taken proporsionally from the mothers in 10 Health Community Centre around Bogor District.  Samples were analyzed for aerobic microbe, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and the potential of enterotoxins production.  All of the donated PMF samples exhibiting a total aerobic count of <104 CFU/g (mean 1.2 x 102 CFU/g) and B. cereus count of <103 CFU/g (mean 3.0 x 102 CFU/g for PMF containing this bacterium).  Improper home storage promote the growth of aerobic microbe and B. cereus.  Improper preparation promote the growth of B. cereus which present initially at low level (mean 7.8 x 10 CFU/g) and became 1.6 x 103 CFU/ml after the reconstitution.  Clostridium perfringens emerge at 4 samples (mean 1.5 x 10 CFU/ml) after the reconstitution.  Several isolate of B. cereus (4 from PMF, 13 from opened PMF, and 2 from reconstution formula) showed a possibility to produce diarrheagenic enterotoxin while the isolate of C. perfringens did not shown it.

 

Keywords: powdered milk formula, B. cereus, C. perfringens, diarrheagenic enterotoxin, preparation and storage
Maya Purwanti, Mirnawati Sudarwanto, Winiati P. Rahayu, A. Winny Sanjaya
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Wiwiek Rindayati, Bunasor Sanim, M. Parulian Hutagaol, Hermanto Siregar
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Dewi Nur Asih, Harianto ., Nunung Kusnadi
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Soil and water conservation treatment have a significant effect on value of C factor and soil erosion.  Vegetatif conservation treatment aimed to reduce of both C factor and soil erosion of the cacao cropping system.  The decrease of both C factor and soil erosion were affected by density of crop canopy and plant rows in counter line, with organic matter addition from system mentioned above.  Experimental method with field study was applied in split plot design consisting three factors, namely (i) slope consisting two levels (10-15% and 40-45%) and (ii) age of the cacao plant consisting two levels (5 to 7 month and 25 to 27 month) were used as main plots (P1 = 5 to 7 month and 10-15%; P2 = 25 to 27 month and 10-15%; P3 = 5 to 7 month and 40-45%;  and P4 = 25 to 27 month and 40-45%), while (iii) vegetatif conservation treatment was used as sub plots consisting three levels, i.e T1 = cacao with disc clearing, T2 = dry field rice and soybean rotation within cacao plants, T3 = T2 + Arachis pintoi as strip plant.  There was not interaction between both cacao plant and slope treatment  with vegetatif conservation treatment to value of C factor and soil erosion.  The value of  C factor in cacao plant and slope treatment P3 (0,43) was significantly different with P4 (0,37). The value of C factor in the vegetatif conservation treatment T1 (0,25) was significantly lower (P < 0,05) than T2 (0,55) and T3 (0,39).  Soil erosion in cacao plant and slope treatment P2 (15,99 ton.ha-1.year-1) was significantly lower than P1, P3, and P4.  Furthermore, soil erosion in the vegetatif conservation treatment T1 (12,95 ton ha-1 year-1) was significantly lower than T2 and T3.  Data analysis with ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (P < 0,05) were done by using SAS program.

 

Key words: cacao, erosion, the value of C factor
Nurmi Hafid, Oteng Haridjaja, Sitanala Arsyad, Sudirman Yahya
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The field observation of this research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2007 in tropical rainforest at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi.  The main objectives of this research were to study (i) the relationships between interception loss and rainfall properties and vegetation characters and to determine the dominant factors affected, (ii) the effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer, and (iii) the dynamics of vertical energy flux under the forest and grass land. Rainfall interception was 36.34% of gross rainfall in 200 events, Depth rainfall and LAI factors had strong effects on rainfall interception.  The relationships could be expressed as Ic = 0.980+0.239P+0.035LAI (R2 = 0.78).  The output of this equation was compared with Gash model and the observation value showed that deviation of the equation was 1% and less than Gash model, so that equation gave as good result as Gash model gave.  By considering the data requirements and calculation procedures it was concluded that this equation is applicable for interception prediction.  Land use type had effects on radiative and energy balance.  Net radiation (Rn) in the forest was 10.66 MJ/m2/day and higher than in the grass land where incident global radiation was similar.  Vertical latent heat flux in the forest was 9.53 MJ/m2/day or 89.40% Rn in rainy day and 8.41 MJ/m2/day or 74.56% Rn in dry day, on the other hand, in the grass land, sensible heat flux was higher than latent heat flux of all weather condition.  Direct effect of rainfall interception on energy flux and mass transfer it is needed latent heat about 9.0 MJ/m2/rainy day to evaporate the rain intercepted 3.69 mm/rainy day.  Effect of rainfall interception had positive correlation with  latent heat flux and the negative correlation  with sensible heat flux.

 

Key words: interception, energy, mass and tropical rainforest

Abdul Rauf, Hidayat Pawitan, Cecep Kusmana, Tania June, G. Gravenhorst
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Forum Pascasarjana
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