Vol 31, No 3 (2008)

Forum Pascasarjana

Table of Contents

Articles

Forum Pascasarjana
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The establishment process of Gunung Halimun National Park resulted in tenurial insecurity for local people, farmers, and hunters.  This condition leads to the open conflict between local people and the government.  One of the issues that make local people fight for is their rights to have an access and control toward the resources.  As a development model of sustainable tourism, ecotourism has been used to respond this type of conflict.  The aims of this study were to evaluate whether or not the ecotourism development in the case study perform the ideal criteria of ecotourism concept and to determine how the existing institutional arrangement support the fulfillment of the criteria.  Two analytical methods were used to achieve these goals.  They were analysis of the performance of ecotourism criteria and institutional analysis of ecotourism development (consists of stakeholder analysis, need analysis and policy analysis).  The results of ecotourism assessment showed that the ecotourism development in the case study do not fulfill the ideal criteria of ecotourism.  While the result of institutional analysis indicated three main findings, namely, insufficient rules and policy to guide ecotourism development, unequal role between stakeholders of ecotourism development, and lack of accountability in implementing the roles in the study area.  This study suggests that in order to perform the ideal ecotourism development, stakeholders should develop agreed local ecotourism policy, reinforce existing organization and improve the capacity of human resources.

 

Key words: ecotourism, institution, national park, policy analysis, qualitative analysis

Sudhiani Pratiwi, Hadi S. Alikodra, Soehartini Sekartjakrarini, Hariadi Kartodihardjo
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Muhammad Wiharto, Cecep Kusmana, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, Tukirin Partomihardjo
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Zednita Azriani, Harianto ., Nunung Nuryartono
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Groundwater in the District of Wajo is stored in Siwa-Pompanua basin covering an area of 93,900 ha and discharge of around 379 millions m3/yr.  The groundwater is utilized to irrigate rain-fed rice fields privately by farmers by means of wells.  The distance between wells and pumping rate are designed without considering the characteristics of the aquifer and adequate irrigation management so that damage in environment might occur and consequently farming might not be sustainable.  A research was conducted with the objectives to study the aquifer characteristics and to develop environmentally friendly groundwater management.  Mathematical models were developed by combining equations of conservation of fluid mass (continuity equations) and Darcy’s law, whereas models of groundwater management were based on crop water requirement and aquifer characteristics.  Test of the model resulted in coefficient of determination equal to 0.848 for the prediction of the drawdown groundwater head.  The result of the model optimization indicated the optimum discharge of each of the wells was different.  One of the wells had a the biggest discharge of 1,268.33 m3/day irrigating 27.58 ha and one other  of the wells had a the smallest discharge of 279.54 m3/day irrigating 6.08 ha of paddy fields based on the irrigation water requirement of 45.99 m3/ha.day.  The reasonable minimum area (ha) determined with equation of power function in x, where x are irrigated hours per season.  For one of planting season/yr, the coefficients of the power (α) equal to 0.0123 and the power functions (β) equal to 0.7247, while for two of planting season/yr with α equal to 0.0047 and β equal to 0.8413.

 

Key words: sustainable groundwater utilization, paddy field irrigation, groundwater management model
Suhardi ., Hidayat Pawitan, Budi Indra Setiawan, Roh Santoso B. Waspodo
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The objectives of this research were analyzing the performance of agricultural  sector and agroindustry, relation between fiscal policy and performance of agricultural sector and agroindustry; analyzing fiscal policy instruments which were effective in influencing the agricultural sector performance and agroindustry performance, and relation between agricultural sector performance and agroindustry performance within fiscal condition of Indonesia. Data time series 1970.1 – 2005.5 were analyzed with Vector Error Correction Model (VECM).  Research results showed that decrease in the performance of agriculture sector occurred in all aspects and its role in the economy, and the same phenomena occurred also in agroindustry.  Instruments of fiscal policy which in the long term affect strongly the performance of agricultural sector and agroindustry were budgets for the following: sector of agriculture, agricultural research and development, agriculture infrastructure, and fiscal decentralization. Performance respond of agricultural sector and agroindustry toward shock  of fiscal policy instruments, to achieve stability, took relatively long period (9 and 8 years respectively). Performance respond of agroindustry toward shock of agricultural sector, to achieve stability, took 6 years period.  Instruments of fiscal policy which were in the long term effective in improving  agricultural sector performance were value added tax, agriculture subsidy, budget for agriculture research and development, budget for agriculture infrastructure, and fiscal decentralization.  Instruments of fiscal policy which were in the long term effective in improving the performance of agroindustry were income tax, value added tax, budget for agriculture infrastructure, and fiscal decentralization.  Performance of agricultural sector which had roles in affecting the variability of agroindustry performance were GDP of agriculture, export and import of agricultural products.

Key words:  fiscal policy, agricultural sector, agroindustry
Darsono ., Mangara Tambunan, Hermanto Siregar, D. S. Priyarsono
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Anthon Monde, Naik Sinukaban, Kukuh Murtilaksono, Nora H. Pandjaitan
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Forum Pascasarjana
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